Folksonomy | Academic Writing is a structured repository of digital culture and creative practice. en-au Creative Commons License: (cc), Simon Perkins Mon, 27 Feb 2017 19:25:52 +1000 Mon, 27 Feb 2017 19:25:52 +1000 Constellations 2.0 60 Writing a Literature Review Using Thematic Groupings In a literature review organized thematically you group and discuss your sources in terms of the themes theoretical concepts and topics that either you decide are important to understanding your topic or that you have identified from reviewing the key studies on your topic This structure is considered stronger than the chronological organization because you define the theories constructs categories or themes that are important to your research In these types of reviews you explain why certain information is treated together and your headings define your unique organization of the topic The sequence of the concepts or themes should be from broad to specific Sally Jensen 09 September 2013 Mon, 27 Feb 2017 19:25:52 +1000 The Materiality of Research Woven into the Fabric of the Text Subversive Material Metaphors in Academic Writing In the social sciences though often we write about our research as if theories and arguments are buildings Theories have frameworks and foundations and they need support Arguments can be constructed shored up by facts and buttressed with a solid line of reasoning Sometimes they can be shaky and even fall down But as well as communicating what we mean metaphors structure our thinking Or at least the metaphors we choose when we write can reveal a great deal about underlying assumptions The theories-as-buildings metaphor always makes me imagine an enormous wall made of rectangular bricks orderly and straight progressing upwards and onwards The researcher s job is to climb the scaffolding find a gap near the top and make a brick to fill it or to knock a few crumbling bricks out and replace them with others strong and freshly fired Or rarely to grab a spade and start digging a new foundation because this metaphor doesn t work like Minecraft bricks can t float unsupported Why does this way of thinking about knowledge hold such sway over us For one thing it offers a comforting sense of progress and control Buildings have blueprints their construction appears to proceed in a predictable fashion engineers can calculate precisely where the load bearing walls and lintels need to be construction workers know how to mix the mortar so it won t crumble Making buildings is also something that happens in the public sphere even with houses the insides only become private when the work is finished and people move in And though we all know full well that knowledge creation doesn t actually happen in the controlled and predictable way the metaphor implies this is the structure that it imposes on our writing an activity that is orderly involves rationality over emotion and inhabits the public sphere not the private Katie Collins 27 May 2016 Mon, 27 Jun 2016 11:32:23 +1000 Rhetorical functions in academic writing Introducing The purpose of the introduction is to show your reader what you are doing in your writing It is also helpful to explain why you are doing it and how you are doing it In many parts of your writing - but especially in introductions - you may need to provide background information and introduce new concepts or ideas and provide a description of how you are going to proceed in the rest of your writing In the following text after giving some background information to justify the research sentence 10 introduces the rest of the report Andy Gillett Fri, 02 Oct 2015 17:22:06 +1000 Reflective writing a basic introduction Reflection is an exploration and an explanation of events ndash not just a description of them Genuinely reflective writing often involves revealing anxieties errors and weaknesses as well as strengths and successes This is fine in fact it s often essential as long as you show some understanding of possible causes and explain how you plan to improve It is normally necessary to select just the most significant parts of the event or idea on which you re reflecting If you try to tell the whole story you re likely to use up your words on description rather than interpretation It is often useful to reflect forward to the future as well as reflecting back on the past Martin Hampton Department for Curriculum and Quality Enhancement University of Portsmouth Sun, 12 Jan 2014 17:58:11 +1000 METU Library Theses and Dissertations Archives This project was started to provide web access to theses and dissertations that have been completed at the Middle East Technical University since April 2003 In September 2003 the METU Library Theses and Dissertations Archives was established and since that time students have been submitting their theses in both print and Adobe portable document format PDF Sun, 01 Sep 2013 19:33:59 +1000 Google Scholar gateway to published scholarly research Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature From one place you can search across many disciplines and sources articles theses books abstracts and court opinions from academic publishers professional societies online repositories universities and other web sites Google Scholar helps you find relevant work across the world of scholarly research Google Inc Fig 1 Uploaded by Google on 6 Jan 2012 Sat, 14 Apr 2012 22:30:50 +1000 Towards a critical discourse of practice as research A problem confronting many artistic researchers is related to the need for the artist to write about his or her own work in the research report or exegesis The outcomes of such research are not easily quantifiable and it can be difficult to articulate objectively methods processes and conclusions that emerge from an alternative logic of practice and the intrinsically subjective dimension of artistic production Moreover conventional approaches and models of writing about art generally fall within the domain of criticism a discourse that tends to focus on connoisieurial evaluation of the finished product How then might the artist as researcher avoid on one hand what has been referred to as auto ndash connoisseurship the undertaking of a thinly veiled labour of valorising what has been achieved in the creative work or alternatively producing a research report that is mere description Nelson 2004 In this paper I suggest that a way of overcoming such a dilemma is for creative arts researchers to shift the critical focus away from the notion of the work as product to an understanding of both studio enquiry and its outcomes as process I will draw on Michel Foucault s essay What is An Author Rabinow 1991 to explore how we might move away from art criticism to the notion of a critical discourse of practice ndash led enquiry that involves viewing the artist as a researcher and the artist critic as a scholar who examines the value of artistic process as the production of knowledge As I will demonstrate in adopting such an approach practitioner researchers need not ignore or negate the specificities and particularities of practice ndash including its subjective and emergent methodologies which I have argued elsewhere constitute the generative strength that distinguishes artistic research from more traditional approaches Barrett 2005 In elaborating the relationship between a these aspects and the more distanced focus made available through Foucault s elaboration of author function I will draw on Donna Haraway s 1991 1992 notion of situated knowledge and her critique of social constructivism which reveals how the scientific method is implicated in social constructivist accounts of knowledge It is this alignment suggests Haraway that results in the effacement of particularities of experience from which situated knowledges emerge In order to ground and illustrate the arguments and ideas presented in this paper I will also refer to Pablo Picasso s Demioselles d Avignon and a selection of critical commentaries on this work by Leo Steinberg 1988 William Rubin 1994 and Lisa Florman 2003 Estelle Barrett 2006 Barrett E 2006 Foucault s What is an Author towards a critical discourse of practice as research Working Papers in Art and Design Vol 4 Retrieved lt date gt from URL http sitem herts ac uk artdes research papers wpades vol4 ebfull html ISSN 1466 ndash 4917 Wed, 22 Feb 2012 20:28:17 +1000 Studies in Material Thinking a research communication platform Studies in Material Thinking is an international journal that reports on the peer reviewed work of artists designers and writers It is a vehicle to support the communication and critique of artistic and design research from the vantage point of both the materiality and the poetics of creative research Studies in Material Thinking aims to develop a series of divergent positions critical approaches and contestations around the term material thinking centred as it is on an understanding of making invention design creative practice and research methodology Nancy de Freitas Studies in Material Thinking Thu, 12 Jan 2012 21:04:13 +1000 Writing an Abstract An abstract is a short summary of your completed research If done well it makes the reader want to learn more about your research These are the basic components of an abstract in any discipline 1 Motivation problem statement Why do we care about the problem What practical scientific theoretical or artistic gap is your research filling 2 Methods procedure approach What did you actually do to get your results e g analyzed 3 novels completed a series of 5 oil paintings interviewed 17 students 3 Results findings product As a result of completing the above procedure what did you learn invent create 4 Conclusion implications What are the larger implications of your findings especially for the problem gap identified in step 1 However it s important to note that the weight accorded to the different components can vary by discipline For models try to find abstracts of research that is similar to your research UC Berkeley 2004 Sun, 27 Nov 2011 22:32:53 +1000 Writing a Literature Review A literature review is a survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study It is a concise overview of what has been studied argued and established about a topic and it is usually organized chronologically or thematically A literature review is written in essay format It is not an annotated bibliography because it groups related works together and discusses trends and developments rather than focusing on one item at a time It is not a summary rather it evaluates previous and current research in regard to how relevant and or useful it is and how it relates to your own research Saint Mary s University Thu, 24 Nov 2011 23:25:17 +1000 Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography provides a brief account of the available research on a given topic It is a list of research sources that includes concise descriptions and evaluations of each source The annotation usually contains a brief summary of content and a short analysis or evaluation Depending on your assignment you may be asked to reflect summarise critique evaluate or analyse the source An annotated bibliography may be a component of a larger assignment or it may be a stand ndash alone assignment While an annotation can be as brief as one sentence the standard annotated bibliography consists of a citation followed by a short paragraph University of New South Wales 2005 Thu, 24 Nov 2011 23:19:42 +1000 Academic Phrasebank a general resource for academic writers The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers It aims to provide you with examples of some of the phraseological nuts and bolts of writing organised under the headings to the left It was designed primarily with international students whose first language is not English in mind However if you are a native speaker writer you may still find parts of the material helpful The phrases can be used simply to assist you in thinking about your writing or they can be used in your own work where this is appropriate In most cases a certain amount of creativity will be necessary when you do this It is also possible to transfer some of the words used in particular phrases to others The phrases are content neutral and generic in nature in using them therefore you are not stealing other people s ideas and this does not constitute plagiarism John Morley 3 November 2011 Wed, 23 Nov 2011 17:33:34 +1000 Practice-led practice-based research methods To date there is no definitive published single source on research methods for artists and designers The following methods are drawn from a range of sources most importantly from validated completed formal research in Art and Design main sources ARIAD ndash www ariad co uk British Library s Index to Theses ndash www theses com Higher Education institutes published information as well as useful examples of research projects in non ndash formal frameworks for example industry commerce education and so on as reported in various journals and professional publications An examination of some of these examples would no doubt lead to classic references to various design methods publications by for example Archer 1965 Jones 1980 Cross 1984 and so on and important research by Cornock 1978 1983 1984 on Fine Art methodology During recent years many more examples of practice ndash based research have become accessible Many have already been cited in previous chapters and more are cited in this one These methods are particularly useful if your own practice forms part of the research methodology Other methods described come from Social Science research for example www sosig ac uk accessed 15 August 2003 Denzin and Lincoln 1994 and some specifically from educational research for example Cohen and Manion 1994 McKernan 1998 These are particularly relevant for human inquiry related to Art and Design for example the study of an individual s practice and user feedback for designed products In some circumstances particular areas of design for example industrial design a more scientific approach may be appropriate in which case design methods may be useful Documented examples of projects using design methods can be found in the journal Design Studies ndash www elsevier nl locate destud accessed 16 June 2003 The range of methods outlined is by no means definitive or completely comprehensive and they cannot be described here in any great detail If you think that a particular method described in this book would be useful in your project then you should discuss it with your supervisor You should always follow up the references and examples given in order to appreciate the context in which the method was used As you become more familiar with various methods you will realize the kind of tasks involved in applying them Once you have identified these tasks build them into your plan of work Research methods development relies on researchers including you adding further detail and modifying as a method is tried and evaluated Carole Gray and Julian Malins 2004 pp 104 ndash 120 Gray and Malins outline the selection and use of common practice ndash led practice ndash based research methods including Practice Photography Video 3D Models maquettes Reflective journal Research diary Audio reflection Sweatbox Case study Interview Questionnaire Personal constructs 1 Carole Gray and Julian Malins 2004 Visualizing Research Ashgate Wed, 23 Nov 2011 11:44:07 +1000 Visual Communication in the Teaching of Writing Of course other kinds of assignments involving visuals do occur in college writing pedagogies Visual analysis especially advertising analysis has been commonplace in postsecondary writing instruction for at least fifty years as a part of the post ndash World War II emphasis on propaganda and semantics characteristic of many composition and communication courses beginning in the 1940s but that practice did not always or consistently include careful consideration of how images layout or graphics actually communicated meaning Instead advertising was treated as a subject for critique rather than itself a form of communication that employed both word and image Diana George 2002 p 21 If I have given the impression that the media revolution of the fifties and sixties was a tough one for writing composition teachers then I must say here that the world of graphic design electronic text and Web technologies certainly will prove even more difficult though ultimately perhaps more useful for future understandings of composition as design As with written compositions Web pages must have an internal coherence they must in other words be navigable Unlike written compositions the internal logic of a Web piece is likely to appear first in the visual construction of the page ndash not only in the images chosen but the colors the placement of text or links the font the use of white space and other elements linked more closely to the world of graphic design than to composition pedagogy The work of Anne Wysocki is useful here as she challenges writing teachers to rethink their notions of what composition means ndash beyond the word and inclusive of the visual Wysocki writes When we ask people in our classes to write for the Web we enlarge what we mean by composition None of us are unaware of the visuality of the Web of how that initial default neutral grey has a different blankness than typing ndash paper Monitoring Order And whether it is true or not that their teachers are aware of the difference between the blank screen and the blank page our students are certainly aware of this difference Many already compose for the Web Many have worked in the realm of the visual or the virtual as constitutive of composing texts of all sorts years before they get to their first ndash year college courses Diana George 2002 p 26 27 Fig 1 Photography She is Frank Styling Tessa O Connor Hair Makeup Megan Harrison Model Bree Unthank Giant Model Management http wearehandsome com a ndash handsome ndash project ndash she ndash is ndash frank 2 Diana George From Analysis to Design Visual Communication in the Teaching of Writing College Composition and Communication 54 1 2002 11 ndash 39 Sun, 06 Nov 2011 08:58:31 +1000 Design scholarship through the Research Project module The final year NTU Multimedia module called the Research Project provides useful insight into the changing knowledge relationships operating within regionalised knowledge contexts The module requires students to demonstrate scholarship that spans multiple traditional domains it requires them to situate their work and communicate its worth through academic writing build conceptual models which they must be able to explore through applied research express their design knowledge and craft skills so that they are able to plan and produce creative work and design software and application development skills to produce working prototypes In this way the module provides a challenge which is unique to such programmes It requires that students engage in a sustained conceptual and technical discovery process which is located within a rapidly changing knowledge context Simon Perkins 2011 Thu, 21 Jul 2011 12:39:56 +1000