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09 MARCH 2014

Gardner Campbell: A Personal Cyberinfrastructure

"So, how might colleges and universities shape curricula to support and inspire the imaginations that students need? Here's one idea. Suppose that when students matriculate, they are assigned their own web servers – not 1GB folders in the institution's web space but honest–to–goodness virtualized web servers of the kind available for $7.99 a month from a variety of hosting services, with built–in affordances ranging from database maintenance to web analytics. As part of the first–year orientation, each student would pick a domain name. Over the course of the first year, in a set of lab seminars facilitated by instructional technologists, librarians, and faculty advisors from across the curriculum, students would build out their digital presences in an environment made of the medium of the web itself. They would experiment with server management tools via graphical user interfaces such as cPanel or other commodity equivalents. They would install scripts with one–click installers such as SimpleScripts. They would play with wikis and blogs; they would tinker and begin to assemble a platform to support their publishing, their archiving, their importing and exporting, their internal and external information connections. They would become, in myriad small but important ways, system administrators for their own digital lives.[3] In short, students would build a personal cyberinfrastructure, one they would continue to modify and extend throughout their college career – and beyond.

In building that personal cyberinfrastructure, students not only would acquire crucial technical skills for their digital lives but also would engage in work that provides richly teachable moments ranging from multimodal writing to information science, knowledge management, bibliographic instruction, and social networking. Fascinating and important innovations would emerge as students are able to shape their own cognition, learning, expression, and reflection in a digital age, in a digital medium. Students would frame, curate, share, and direct their own "engagement streams" throughout the learning environment.[4] Like Doug Engelbart's bootstrappers in the Augmentation Research Center, these students would study the design and function of their digital environments, share their findings, and develop the tools for even richer and more effective metacognition, all within a medium that provides the most flexible and extensible environment for creativity and expression that human beings have ever built."

(Gardner Campbell, 4 September 2009)

Gardner Campbell, "A Personal Cyberinfrastructure," EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 44, no. 5 (September/October 2009), pp. 58–59.

[3] Jim Groom has outlined several key parts of this vision: "A Domain of One's Own," bavatuesdays, November 29, 2008, .

[4] W. Gardner Campbell and Robert F. German Jr., "The Map Is the Territory: Course 'Engagement Streams' as Catalysts for Deep Learning," EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) Annual Meeting, January 21, 2009, podcast at "

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TAGS

2009A Domain of Ones Own (project) • a personal cyber infrastructure • agency of access and engagement • assemble a platform • Augmentation Research Center at SRI • bootstrapper • connectivism • cPanel • cyberinfrastructure • Dave Winerdigital environmentsdigital livesdigital medium • digital presence • Douglas Engelbarte-learning 2.0education innovationEducause Quarterlyengagement streams • external information connections • flexible and extensible environment • Gardner Campbell • information connections • information science • infrastructureinstitutional network • internal information connections • Jim Groomknowledge managementlearning technology • matriculate • metacognitionmultimodal scholarship • multimodal writing • personal cyber infrastructurepersonal expressionPersonal Learning Environment • richly teachable moments • Robert German • server management • shape your own cognition • share your findings • SimpleScripts • skillful practice • skills acquisition • social networkingtechnology affordancesthinking toolstinkertinkerer • Virginia Tech • web server • web server space • web space

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
01 OCTOBER 2011

Zło muzykalna stacja dysków / Evil floppy drives

"Dźwięk powstaje poprzez ruch głowicy, która jest przesuwana krokowo z odpowiednią częstotliwością. Opis interfejsu można znaleźć np. TUTAJ. Wystarczy jedynie aktywować stację przez podanie stan niskiego na DRVSB0 lub 1 (w zależności czy mamy taśmę z crossem i do której wtyczki podłączona jest stacja) i wybrać kierunek ruchu głowicy (stan niski/wysoki na DIR), a zbocze opadające na STEP spowoduję ruch głowicy o jeden krok. Całością steruje mikrokontroler ATMega."

(SileNT)

[Creating music using a microcontroller to control twin stepper motors in floppy drives –in this case to play the Star Wars Emperor's Theme.]

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 JUNE 2011

Instructable web-based documentation platform

"Instructables is a web–based documentation platform where passionate people share what they do and how they do it, and learn from and collaborate with others. The seeds of Instructables germinated at the MIT Media Lab as the future founders of Squid Labs built places to share their projects and help others."

(Eric J. Wilhelm)

Fig.1 Kipkay (Kipkay Videos) Blu–Ray Laser Phaser http://www.facebook.com/kipkayvideos/
Fig.2 SaskView "The Most Useless Machine EVER!" http://saskview.com/?page_id=11
Fig.3 Randy Sarafan. "Lunchtime Clock" http://www.instructables.com/id/Lunchtime–Clock/?ALLSTEPS
Fig.4 kaptaink_cg "Bacon Roses"

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TAGS

bicycles • Blu-Ray Laser Phaser • cell phones • DIY • documentation platform • energy company • Eric J. Wilhelm • gadgethackinghacksterhand-held • hand-held generator • high-altitude wind • how to do thingshow-to • Howtoons • innovation • innovation consulting • Instructables • instructionlaptopslaserlearnLED • lens-fabricating devices • lighting systems • Makani • MIT Media Lab • MonkeyLectric • OptiOpia • Playstation 3 • Potenco • products and servicesproject-sharing websiteprototype • research and design firm • share • Squid Labs • Star Trek • Star Trek Phaser • technology tinkeringtinkereruseless boxuseless machines • vision-correction business • vision-testing devices • web-based

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 NOVEMBER 2009

Learning algebra in a computer algebra environment : design research on the understanding of the concept of parameter

"Design research – also known as developmental research or development research – is a research methodology that aims at developing theories, instructional materials and an empirically grounded understanding of 'how the learning works' (Research Advisory Committee, 1996). The main objective of design research is understanding and not explaining (Bruner, 1996). This objective implies different norms of justification than would be the case in comparative empirical research. One important feature of design research is the adaptation of the learning trajectory throughout the research; based on previous experience, the instructional sequences and teaching experiment conditions are adjusted. Therefore, design research is particularly suitable in situations where a full theoretical framework is not yet available and where hypotheses are still to be developed. The methodology of design research is addressed in many recent publications (e.g. van den Akker, 1999; Brown, 1992; Edelson, 2002; Freudenthal, 1991; Gravemeijer, 1993, 1994, 1998; Gravemeijer & Cobb, 2001; Leijnse, 1995; Treffers, 1993). In spite of varying interpretations of the notion of design research, there is agreement on the identification of two key aspects: the cyclic character of design research and the central position of the design of instructional activities. We now address these two issues.

The cyclic character of design research

Design research has a cyclic character: a design research study consists of research cycles in which thought experiments and teaching experiments alternate. We distinguish macro–cycles that concern the global level of the teaching experiments, and micro–cycles that concern the level of subsequent lessons. Gravemeijer argued that the cycles lead to a cumulative effect of small steps, in which teaching experiments provide 'feed–forward' for the next thought experiments and teaching experiments (Gravemeijer, 1993, 1994).

A macro–cycle of design research consists of three phases: the preliminary design phase, the teaching experiment phase, and the phase of retrospective analysis. In the last–mentioned phase, the reflection captures the development of the insights of the researcher. Following Goffree (1986) and Schön (1983), Gravemeijer called this 'reflection–in–action' (Gravemeijer, 1993, 1994). As a result, new theories, new hypotheses and new instructional activities emerge, that form the feed–forward for the next research cycle that may have a different character, according to new insights and hypotheses. The process of the researcher's thinking should be reported, to ensure the trackability of this development for others (Freudenthal, 1991; Gravemeijer, 1994).

As far as the role of theory in design research is concerned, the term 'theory–guided bricolage' is used (Gravemeijer, 1994). The researcher is like a tinkerer, who tries to combine and integrate global and local theories, which may be issued from other domains, to develop a learning trajectory and a local instruction theory for a specific topic. This local instruction theory contributes to the development of the domain–specific instruction theory.

In our study, three full macro–cycles – indicated as G9–I, G9–II and G10–II – and one intermediate cycle were carried out. The first phase of preliminary design includes two related parts, the development of a hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT) and the design of instructional activities. This phase is followed by the teaching experiment and the retrospective analysis. Fig. 2.1 shows the three full research cycles. Cycle 1 started with a conceptual analysis that is described in Chapter 4. Each of the phases is elaborated on in Sections 2.3 – 2.6, whereas specific information on each of the cycles is presented in 2.7.

The role of design

A second characteristic of design research is the importance of the development of a learning trajectory that is made tangible in instructional activities (Gravemeijer, 1994). The design of instructional activities is more than a necessity for carrying out teaching experiments. The design process forces the researcher to make explicit choices, hypotheses and expectations that otherwise might have remained implicit. The development of the design also indicates how the emphasis within the theoretical development may shift and how the researcher's insights and hypotheses develop. We agree with Edelson, who argued that design of student texts is a meaningful part of the research methodology:

(...) design research explicitly exploits the design process as an opportunity to advance the researchers' understanding of teaching, learning, and educational systems. Design research may still incorporate the same types of outcome–based evaluation that characterize traditional theory testing, however, it recognizes design as an important approach to research in its own right. (Edelson, 2002, p.107)

This is particularly the case when the theoretical framework involved is under construction:

(...) it [the research] started with only a partial theory and has proceeded with the explicit goal of elaborating that theory before attempting any summary evaluation. The lessons that are emerging from this effort are being shaped by the concrete, practical work of design. (Edelson, 2002, p. 112)"

(Paulus Drijvers, Maria Hendrikus, 2003)

Fig.1 David Coghlan & Teresa Brannick (2001).

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TAGS

2003action researchalgebra • CAS • computer algebra • cyclicdesign-based research • development research • developmental research • how learning works • instructional materials • instructional sequences • learning trajectorymathematicsmathematics educationmathsmethodology • realistic mathematics education • reflection-in-actionresearchresearch methodologyresearch methods • retrospective analysis • technologytheoretical framework • theory-guided bricolage • tinkerer

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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