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Which clippings match 'Research Approach' keyword pg.1 of 1
20 DECEMBER 2012

How to design your research project

"What are your beliefs about how valid knowledge can be obtained? This will influence your approach to your research. If you are a positivist, for example, (who believes that valid knowledge can be obtained through a scientific approach), you are likely to choose a quantitative research method that begins with a theory and tests that theory. If you favour the social constructivist view that meaning is subjective, gained through interactions with others, you would be more likely to choose qualitative research methods that explores themes. Qualitative research is about generating theory and finding patterns of meaning."

(Centre for Academic Development and Quality, Nottingham Trent University)



Abbas Tashakkori • Anthony Onwuegbuzie • audiencebeliefs • Centre for Academic Development and Quality • data collection • epistemological approach • epistemological beliefs • epistemologyethical considerationsethical issues • existing theory • experimental designs • generating theory • interactions with others • John Creswell • Journal of Mixed Methods Research • Judith Bell • Mark Weinstein • Martyn Denscombe • Matt Henn • meaning is subjective • mixed methods • mixed methods research • new knowledge • new research methods • new theory • Nick Foard • non-experimental design • patterns of meaningpositivistqualitative research • quantitative research methods • research • research aims • research approachresearch contributionresearch designresearch disseminationresearch methodologyresearch projectresearch questions • research theory • scientific approach • social constructivistsocial sciencetriangulationvalid knowledge


Simon Perkins
15 NOVEMBER 2009

Design-Based Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Educational Inquiry

"Educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners agree that educational research is often divorced from the problems and issues of everyday practice–a split that creates a need for new research approaches that speak directly to problems of practice (National Research Council [NRC], 2002) and that lead to the development of 'usable knowledge' (Lagemann, 2002). Design–based research (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992) is an emerging paradigm for the study of learning in context through the systematic design and study of instructional strategies and tools. We argue that design–based research can help create and extend knowledge about developing, enacting, and sustaining innovative learning environments. Definitions of design experiments abound (see Bell, 2002a). We use the phrase design–based research methods deliberately (after Hoadley, 2002) to avoid invoking mistaken identification with experimental design, with studies of designers, or with trial teaching methods. We propose that good design–based research exhibits the following five characteristics: First, the central goals of designing learning environments and developing theories or 'prototheories' of learning are intertwined. Second, development and research take place through continuous cycles of design, enactment, analysis, and redesign (Cobb, 2001; Collins, 1992). Third, research on designs must lead to sharable theories that help communicate relevant implications to practitioners and other educational designers (cf. Brophy, 2002). Fourth, research must account for how designs function in authentic settings. It must not only document success or failure but also focus on interactions that refine our understanding of the learning issues involved. Fifth, the development of such accounts relies on methods that can document and connect processes of enactment to outcomes of interest."

(The Design–Based Research Collective, 2002)

1). Educational Researcher, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 5–8


2002applied researchconceptualisationdesign-based researchdiscoveryenquiryexperimentationinsightinstruction • instructional strategies • learninglearning environments • learning in context • pedagogy • prototheories • researchresearch approachresearch methodstheory building


Simon Perkins

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