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Which clippings match 'Soul' keyword pg.1 of 2
11 NOVEMBER 2016

Rap & Hip-Hop was born in 1973 at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue

"Hip-hop music is generally considered to have been pioneered in New York's South Bronx in 1973 by Jamaican-born Kool DJ Herc. At a Halloween dance party thrown by his younger sister, Herc used an innovative turntable technique to stretch a song's drum break by playing the break portion of two identical records consecutively. The popularity of the extended break lent its name to 'breakdancing'--a style specific to hip-hop culture, which was facilitated by extended drumbreaks played by DJs at New York dance parties. By the mid-1970s, New York's hip-hop scene was dominated by seminal turntablists DJ Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, and Herc. The rappers of Sugarhill Gang produced hip-hop's first commercially successful hit, 'Rapper's Delight,' in 1979'.

Rap itself--the rhymes spoken over hip-hop music--began as a commentary on the ability--or 'skillz'--of a particular DJ while that DJ was playing records at a hip-hop event. MCs, the forerunners of today's rap artists, introduced DJs and their songs and often recognized the presence of friends in the audience at hip-hop performances. Their role was carved out by popular African-American radio disc jockeys in New York during the latel96Os, who introduced songs and artists with spontaneous rhymes. The innovation of MCs caught the attention of hip-hop fans. Their rhymes lapped over from the transition period between the end of one song and the introduction of the next to the songs themselves. Their commentaries moved solely from a DJ's skillz to their own personal experiences and stories. The role of MCs in performances rose steadily, and they began to be recognized as artists in their own right [2].

The local popularity of the rhythmic music served by DJs at dance parties and clubs, combined with an increase in 'b-boys'--breakdancers--and graffiti artists and the growing importance of MCs, created a distinctive culture known as hip-hop. For the most part, hip-hop culture was defined and embraced by young, urban, working-class African-Americans. Hip-hop music originated from a combination of traditionally African-American forms of music--including jazz, soul, gospel, and reggae. It was created by working-class African-Americans, who, like Herc, took advantage of available tools--vinyl records and turntables--to invent a new form of music that both expressed and shaped the culture of black New York City youth in the 1970s."

(Becky Blanchard, 1999)

2). Information on MCs drawn from the University of Maryland's "Mcing: The Past" and "MCing: The Present" in "A Brief History of Hip-Hop Culture"

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1970s1973African AmericanAfrika Bambaataaappropriation • b-boys • b-girls • Becky Blanchard • black culture • block party • break dancing • breakbeat • breakdance • breakdancing • Cindy Campbell • civil rights movement • Clive Campbell • cultural expression • dance party • DJ • DJ Grandmaster Flash • DJing • extended break • gospel • graffiti art • graffiti artists • Grandmaster Flash • hip-hophip-hop backbeat • hip-hop culture • hip-hop music • hip-hop performance • hip-hop scene • jazz • Kool DJ Herc • l960s • MC • MCing • music history • musical form • New York City • radio disc jockey • rap • rap artist • rap music • rapperreggae • rhyme • rhythmic music • Sedgwick Avenue • skillz • soul • South Bronx • spoken word • Sugarhill Gang • turntable • turntable technique • turntablist • vinyl record • West Bronx • working classworking class cultureyouth culture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 JULY 2014

Substance Dualism, Property Dualism and Mind-Body Dualism

"Consider the following three Cartesian theses:

Substance dualism: Any substance with mental properties lacks material properties and any substance with material properties lacks mental properties.

Property dualism: Mental properties and material properties are different properties.

Real distinction between mind and body: The mind and the body are numerically distinct substances.

How are these theses logically related? Substance dualism is the strongest of the three, and entails the other two. It entails the real distinction between mind and body. For the mind is a substance with mental properties, and the body is a substance with material properties. Now if the mind lacks material properties, and the body lacks mental properties, then the mind and the body cannot be the same substance. But the real distinction between mind and body does not entail substance dualism. For that mind and body are two numerically distinct substances is compatible with both of them having both mental and material properties.

Substance dualism also entails property dualism. For if a substance with mental properties lacks material properties, then mental and material properties are different properties–otherwise, a substance with mental properties would be a substance with material properties. But property dualism does not entail substance dualism. It could be that mental properties and material properties are different properties and yet a substance with mental properties is also a substance with material properties.

But the real distinction between mind and body and property dualism do not entail each other. It could be that mind and body are numerically distinct substances but mental and material properties are the same. For instance, it could be that mind and body are distinct because they have different properties: the mind has a property M that the body lacks, and the body has a property B that the mind lacks. This does not preclude that both M and B are both mental and material properties. So the real distinction between mind and body does not entail property dualism. Nor does property dualism entail the real distinction between mind and body. For even if mental and material properties are different properties, it can still be the case that the mind, which has mental properties, and the body, which has material properties, are the same substance."

(Gonzalo Rodriguez–Pereyra, pp.70–71)

Rodriguez–Pereyra, G. (2008). "Descartes's Substance Dualism and His Independence Conception of Substance". Journal of the History of Philosophy 46(1): 69–90.
Fig.1 Lucy Jones "Philosophy of the Mind Episode Two: Criticisms of Substance Dualism", YouTube.

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bodyCartesian dualismcognitionconsciousnessdefining features of modernitydifferentiationdistinctionsdualism • epiphenomenalism • Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra • introspectionlogical-analytical paradigmmaterial environmentmaterial object • material properties • material realitymaterial space • material substances • material thinkingmaterial world • mental properties • mental substance • mindmind-body dualism • mind-body problem • minds divorced of bodiesobjective knowledgeobjective realityobjectivity • other minds • parallelism • philosophical position • philosophy of mind • physical worldproperties of nature • property dualism • realm of existenceRene Descartesscientifically established objective facts • separability argument • separate thinking • solipsism • soul • subject-object orientated philosophy • subjectificationsubjective conditionsubjectivismsubjectivity • substance dualism

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
01 JANUARY 2013

The Value of Culture: Culture and the Anthropologists

"Melvyn Bragg continues his exploration of the idea of culture by considering its use in the discipline of anthropology. In 1871 the anthropologist Edward Tylor published Primitive Culture, an enormously influential work which for the first time placed culture at the centre of the study of humanity. His definition of culture as the 'capabilities and habits acquired by man' ensured that later generations saw culture as common to all humans, and not simply as the preserve of writers and philosophers."

(Melvyn Bragg, 2013)

"The Value of Culture: Culture and the Anthropologists", Radio broadcast, Episode 2 of 5, Duration: 42 minutes, First broadcast: Monday 01 January 2013, Presenter/Melvyn Bragg, Producer/Thomas Morris for the BBC Radio 4, UK.

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187119th centuryanima • animism • anthropologist • anthropologybelief systemsbeliefsborrowing • borrowings • capabilities and habits • Charles Lyell • civilisation • complex societies • cultural characteristics • cultural evolutionism • cultural relativismcultureculturescustoms • development of religions • early cultures • Edward Tylor • ethnographersethnographic study • evolution of culture • faith • force of habit • habithabitshistoricismhistoricist • human behaviours • human culture • human customs • human customs and behaviours • humanity • idea of culture • Indigenousleisure timematerial cultureMelvyn Bragg • Pitt Rivers • prehistory • Primitive Culture (book) • primitive cultures • religion • religious belief • science • scientific study • social anthropologysocietysoul • study of humanity • survivals • symbolic behaviourThe Value of Culture (radio)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 AUGUST 2012

Paolo Gioli's cinematic tone poem to Marilyn Monroe

"Italian film maker Paolo Gioli creates a haunting short movie by animating photographs taken by Bert Stern of Marilyn Monroe shortly before she died at the age of 36, fifty years ago today.

Filmarilyn is both beautiful and foreboding. As the film's jazzy rhythms start to disintegrate and the images slow to a crawl, 'X' marks on the contact sheets appear like magical curses and a fresh scar on Marilyn's flesh transforms into a stigmata while her face, half–hidden by shrouds of white, eyes closed, turns impossibly pale and lifeless. In the final moments, close–ups of her hands in death–like repose seem almost saintly and as the film's last frames unspool we are left with the sense of having seen an apparition, a ghost... a soul X–rayed.

It's amazing how much power and sadness Gioli creates from so few elements – a testimony to his artistry, Marilyn's radiance and Stern's skill in capturing it."

(Marc Campbell, 05 August 2012, Dangerous Minds)

Fig.1 Paolo Gioli (1992) "Filmarilyn", uploaded to Vimeo by Volodymyr Bilyk.

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1992 • actress • animated sequenceanimated video • animating photographs • apparitionavant-garde cinema • Bert Stern • blondecelluloid • contact sheet • cultural icondeath • death-like repose • depth of focus • disintegrate • experimental film • eyes closed • Filmarilyn • Filmmarilyn • final moments • forebodingfound imagesframe by frameghost • haunting • HollywoodHollywood starletjazz rhythm • lifeless • manipulated images • Marilyn Monroe • modulated object framing • motion designnon-narrative • Paolo Gioli • photographic blow-upspop iconre-purposerhythmic motionrisque • scar • scavengedsequence design • sex symbol • short film • short movie • shrouds of white • simulate dimensionality • slow to a crawl • soul • stigmata • still images • still photographs • stop-frame animation • superstar • tantalizing • tone poem • unspool • visual recessions • X marks • x-ray

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
10 FEBRUARY 2012

Jim Jarmusch: authenticity is invaluable; originality is non-existent!

"Nothing is original. Steal from anywhere that resonates with inspiration or fuels your imagination. Devour old films, new films, music, books, paintings, photographs, poems, dreams, random conversations, architecture, bridges, street signs, trees, clouds, bodies of water, light and shadows. Select only things to steal from that speak directly to your soul. If you do this, your work (and theft) will be authentic. Authenticity is invaluable; originality is non–existent. And don't bother concealing your thievery – celebrate it if you feel like it. In any case, always remember what Jean–Luc Godard said: 'It's not where you take things from – it's where you take them to."

(Jim Jarmusch)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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