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Which clippings match '1962' keyword pg.1 of 2
20 APRIL 2015

Normal-scientific research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies

"Mop-ping-up operations are what engage most scientists throughout their careers. They constitute what I am here calling normal science. Closely examined, whether historically or in the contemporary laboratory, that enterprise seems an attempt to force nature into the preformed and relatively inflexible box that the paradigm supplies. No part of the aim of normal science is to call forth new sorts of phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the box are often not seen at all. Nor do scientists normally aim to invent new theories, and they are often intolerant of those invented by others.[1] Instead, normal-scientific research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies.

Perhaps these are defects. The areas investigated by normal science are, of course, minuscule; the enterprise now under discussion has drastically restricted vision. But those restrictions, born from confidence in a paradigm, turn out to be essential to the development of science. By focusing attention upon a small range of relatively esoteric problems, the paradigm forces scientists to investigate some part of nature in a detail and depth that would otherwise be unimaginable. And normal science possesses a built-in mechanism that ensures the relaxation of the restrictions that bound research whenever the paradigm from which they derive ceases to function effectively. At that point scientists begin to behave differently, and the nature of their research problems changes. In the interim, however, during the period when the paradigm is successful, the profession will have solved problems that its members could scarcely have imagined and would never have undertaken without commitment to the paradigm."

(Thomas Kuhn, 1962, Vol. II, No. 2, p.24)

Thomas S. Kuhn (1962). "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions".

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TAGS

1962 • accurate predictions • anomalies • ascendant revolution • Bernard Barber • conceptual continuity • development-by-accumulation • episodic model • history of science • history of scientific knowledge • logical positivism • logically determinate procedure • normal science • paradigm • paradigm shiftphilosophy of science • philosophy of scientific knowledge • puzzle-solving • realistic humanism • revolutionary science • science • scientific discovery • scientific knowledgescientific progress • scientific revolutions • sociology of scientific knowledge • Thomas Kuhn • useless science

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 JUNE 2014

Modern Chairs in Plexiglas and Metal by Verner Panton (1962)

"Various shots of very modern types of chairs designed by Verner Panton the Danish furniture specialist. His creations are made of metal and plexiglas. People sitting on unusual chairs."

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1962British PathechairDanish designfurniturefurniture designfuturistic designhome furnishings • modern furniture • modernist furnitureplexiglas • unusual chairs • Verner Panton

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 NOVEMBER 2013

Own Label Sainsbury's Design Studio 1962-1977

"In 1962, when Peter Dixon joined the Sainsbury's Design Studio, a remarkable revolution in packaging design began. The supermarket was developing its distinctive range of Own Label products, and Dixon's designs for the line were revolutionary: simple, stripped down, creative, and completely different from what had gone before. Their striking modernity pushed the boundaries, reflecting a period full of optimism. They also helped build Sainsbury's into a brand giant, the first real 'super' market of the time. This book examines and celebrates this paradigm shift that redefined packaging design, and led to the creation of some of the most original packaging ever seen.

Produced in collaboration with the Sainsbury family and The Sainsbury Archive, the book reveals an astonishing and exhaustive body of work. A unique insight into what and how we ate, the packaging is presented using both scanned original flat packets and photographic records made at the time. With an essay by Emily King featuring interviews with Peter Dixon and Lord Sainsbury of Preston Candover."

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1960s19621970sbrandBritish designcolour fielddesign aestheticsdesign simplicitydesign studio • Emily King • food labelformalist design aesthetics • FUEL (design group) • graphic designgraphic design collectiongraphic design historyinformation design • John Sainsbury • labelmodernist aestheticsmodernity • Own Label (book) • packagingpackaging design • packets • Peter Dixon • photographic records • plain packproduct packagingSainsburys • Sainsburys Design Studio • Sainsburys Own Label • simple design • stripped down • supermarket • The Sainsbury Archive • UK

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
14 SEPTEMBER 2013

Four women share stories from UK computing's early days

"In three clips from past interviews, Joyce Wheeler and Margaret Marrs talk about their time using EDSAC at Cambridge, and Mary Coombs tells of programming LEO, the world's first business computer. And in a fourth brand new film, Dame Stephanie Shirley shares her extraordinary tale of founding Freelance Programmers, one of the UK's first software startups."

(Lynette Webb, 5 September 2013, Google Europe Blog)

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19591962 • business computer • business womencomputer history • computing heritage • computing history • computing industry • Dina St Johnston • EDSAC • electronic computer • Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) • Freelance Programmers (IT firm) • gender equalityGoogle (GOOG) • Google Europe Blog • history of computing • home office • home working • inspirational stories • Joyce Wheeler • kindertransport • Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) • Margaret Marrs • Mary Coombs • pioneering womenpioneers in computer science • Stephanie Shirley • University of Cambridge • Vaughan Programming Services (IT firm) • women and technologywomen in businesswomen in leadership positionswomen in technologywomen programmers • working from home

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
23 JUNE 2013

The backstory for the D&AD awards showcase

"1962. A group of designers and art directors come together to celebrate creative communication and raise standards within their industry.

Amongst the group are David Bailey, Terence Donovan and Alan Fletcher (yes, it was that cool). They call themselves British Design & Art Direction and the following year they organise their first Awards event. And they are picky. From 2500 entries they select just 16 pieces of work to receive the soon to be coveted Yellow Pencil.

2011 and British Design & Art Direction has grown mightily, but slimmed down its name. Now D&AD, its members represent the creative, design and advertising communities, not just in Britain, but worldwide."

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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