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30 OCTOBER 2015

Ephemeral Media: temporal programmatic recombinatory practice

"Kuleshov's insights gave voice to a temporal recombinatory practice that is older than the film medium, evident for example in nineteenth-century programming of magiclantern exhibitions, where showmen learned to build – and to rework – stories from the slides that they happened to have. But these early practices, particularly as they appeared through film's first decade or so, actually made use of recombinatory logic in a double sense. First, in the hands of film-makers such as Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith, the sequence of shots was manipulated to construct overall textual meaning (just as Kuleshov would later theorise and experimentally demonstrate). Second, the positioning of the films of Porter, Griffiths and others into full programmes (complete with lantern slides, actualités and other narratives) could itself radically transform the meanings of individual films. Here, the programmer (usually the projectionist) could, through simple manipulation of film sequence, comment upon or build different frameworks of coherence for a particular film. This metalevel of recombination was not discussed by Kuleshov and, indeed, largely took residual form in exhibition practice. But it was seized upon by television (and radio), where programmatic recombination would emerge as the economic lifeblood of the industry in the form of the rerun. And it provides one of the keys to television's distinctive deployment of ephemeral programme elements. Television's programming logics turn on a triad of organisational principles when it comes to texts, ephemeral and not: sequence, interpenetration and repetition."

(William Uricchio, 2011)

[2] Derek Kompare (2005) offers an excellent overview of this practice.

William Uricchio, "The Recurrent, the Recombinatory and the Ephemeral," in Paul Grainge, ed., Ephemeral Media: Transitory Screen Culture from Television to YouTube (London: British Film Institute / Palgrave MacMillan, 2011): 23-36 [http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/ephemeral-media-paul-grainge/?isb=9781844574353].

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TAGS

actualites • broadcast era programming • broadcast schedule • careful orchestration of programme units • changing constituency of viewers • commercial television • content recycling • contextualisationcontinuous viewing • David Wark Griffith • displaced micro-programme elements • Edwin Porter • ephemeral media • ephemeral programme elements • exhibition practice • frameworks of coherence • frequency of repetition • iconic footage • interconnect programme elements • interpenetration • interstitials • John Ellis • juxtaposed imagesKuleshov Effect • larger whole • line-up • magic lantern • manipulation of film sequence • mass media • metalevel recombination • metatextNatural Born Killers • news headlines • organisational principles • paratext • Paul Grainge • persuasive logic • programmatic historical framing • programmatic recombination • programme bumpers • programme hooks • programme segments • programme units • projectionist • punctuation of programme sequence • radio • recombinatory logic • recombinatory practice • recycling of footage • recycling programmes • remote controlrepetition • rerun • residual form • rework • rupture engagement • self-programmer • sequence design • sequence of shots • showmen • television and broadcasting • television programmingtelevision studiestemporal contiguity • temporal recombinatory practice • textual meaning • thirty-minute rotation • timed advertisements • transitory screen culture • watching television • William Uricchio • YouTube channel • YouTube segments

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
17 OCTOBER 2012

New Possibilities: Cinema is Dead, Long Live Cinema

"lectures presented by filmmaker Peter Greenaway as the 2010–2011 Avenali Chair in the Humanities at the Townsend Center for the Humanities.'"

(Townsend Center for the Humanities)

Fig1. Lecture presented by filmmaker Peter Greenaway 13 September 2010.

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TAGS

2010 • Avenali Chair in the Humanities • cinema • Cinema Is Dead Long Live Cinema • cinema pioneercommercial televisioncontinuous viewingdeath of cinemadeath of the authorfilmmakerfilmmakersindividual and collective activitiesJean-Luc Godardlecture • new possibilities • Peter Greenawayremote controltechnology innovationtelevision studiestemporal contiguity • Townsend Center for the Humanities • transformationzapper

CONTRIBUTOR

Alex Shutti
20 NOVEMBER 2009

Product placement: personal video recorders degrading impact of conventional advertising

"Advertising has undergone many changes over the last century, moving from printed messages extolling the virtues of a product, to radio broadcasts that took the consumer's point of view into account, and on toward mass media appeals based on the television's ability to deliver a multidimensional message in a mere 30 seconds. The advent of the 'TiVo–style' personal video recorder (PVR) has degraded the impact of conventional advertising, as these PVR's allow viewers to 'zap' commercials. This has made advertisers look for other methods of putting their message before the eyes of the consumers of video media."

(Michael Bovard & Jeffrey Murray, 2005)

RIT Digital Media Library: Item 1850/5333

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TAGS

2005advertisingbrand awarenessbrand recognitionbrandingCoca-Cola • Coke • commercialcommercialsconsumer behaviourconsumerism • embedded marketing • enterprisefilminnovation • marketing communications • mass media • multidimensional message • old media • personal video recorder • persuasionprintproductproduct endorsementproduct placementpromotion • PVR • radioremote control • RIT Digital Media Library • Rochester Institute of TechnologyshoppingsponsorshiptelevisionTIVOvideo mediazapper

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 OCTOBER 2009

Open IPTV Forum: Content on Demand

"With traditional TV services, consumers are able to watch scheduled programs where the only interaction possible is the ability to change channels. IPTV not only allows users to interact with scheduled programs, such as voting with their remote control, but also provides Content on Demand, where users select content items they want to watch at a time of their choosing. The Content Guide can not only be customized by the user, but can also integrate scheduled programs and on–demand items. For example, this integration would allow users to search for the name of stars that they have seen on TV shows and find on–demand movies by the same actor that they could watch immediately. IPTV services connected to service providers on the Open Internet would not only allow users to search for content–related articles and blogs on the Internet, but also, for example, let users buy the same products, such as clothing or furniture, used by celebrities on TV programs. All these features could be provided without using any additional or dedicated device."
(Open IPTV Forum, 6 January 2009)

TAGS

2009audiovisual • AVOD • cable televisionconvergencedevicedigitaldigital mediaFranceInternetinternet televisionIPTVmediaon-demand • Open IPTV • remote control • set-top box • streamingtechnologytelevisionTVvideovideo on demand • VOD • voting

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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