"I am going to argue that 'media independence' does not just happen by itself. For a technique to work with various data types, programmers have to implement a different method for each data type. Thus, media–independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types. Let us look at some examples.
Consider the omnipresent cut and paste. The algorithm to select a word in a text document is different from the algorithm to select a curve in a vector drawing, or the algorithm to select a part of a continuous tone (i.e. raster) image. In other words, 'cut and paste' is a general concept that is implemented differently in different media software depending on which data type this software is designed to handle. (In Larry Tesler's original implementation of the universal commands concept done at PARC in 1974–5, it only worked for text editing.) Although cut, copy, paste, and a number of similar 'universal commands' are available in all contemporary GUI applications for desktop computers (but not necessarily in mobile phone apps), what they actually do and how they do it is different from application to application.
Search operates in the same way. The algorithm to search for a particular phrase in a text document is different than the algorithm that searches for a particular face in a photo or a video clip. (I am talking here about 'content–based search,' i.e. the type of search which looks for information inside actual images, as opposed to only searching image titles and other metadata the way image search engines such as Google Image Search were doing it in the 2000s.) However, despite these differences the general concept of search is the same: locating any elements of a single media object–or any media objects in a larger set–to match particular user–defined criteria. Thus we can ask the web browser to locate all instances of a particular word in a current web page; we can ask a web search engine to locate all web pages which contain a set of keywords; and we can ask a content–based image search engine to find all images that are similar in composition to an image we provided. ...
Against these historical developments, the innovation of media software clearly stands. They bring a new set of techniques which are implemented to work across all media. Searchability, findability, linkability, multimedia messaging and sharing, editing, view control, zoom and other 'mediaindependent' techniques are viruses that infect everything software touches–and therefore in their importance they can be compared to the basic organizing principles for media and artifacts which were used for thousands of years."
(Lev Manovich, 2013, pp.113–124)
Manovich, L. (2013). "Software Takes Command", Continuum.
"MeCCSA is the subject association for the field of media, communication and cultural studies in UK Higher Education. Membership is open to all who teach and research these subjects in HE institutions, via either institutional or individual membership. The field includes film and TV studies, media production, journalism, radio, photography, creative writing, publishing, interactive media and the web; and it includes higher education for media practice as well as for media studies."
"PledgeMe is here to provide a collaborative way to help fund creative projects for anyone who has an idea they want to see happen, and just as importantly, give support to those who wish to contribute to the success of a project.
When a project is successful and reaches or exceeds the funding goal the project requires, the total amount raised by the contributions of the supporters is passed on to the creator of the project, minus the percentage due to PledgeMe. If a project is not successful and doesn't reach its funding goal, the funding intended for the project doesn't get charged to the supporters of the project."
(Camilo Borges, Anna Guenther, Prue Clark and Amy Bowie)
"Kickstarter is the world's largest funding platform for creative projects. Every week, tens of thousands of amazing people pledge millions of dollars to projects from the worlds of music, film, art, technology, design, food, publishing and other creative fields.
A new form of commerce and patronage. This is not about investment or lending. Project creators keep 100% ownership and control over their work. Instead, they offer products and experiences that are unique to each project.
All or nothing funding.On Kickstarter, a project must reach its funding goal before time runs out or no money changes hands. Why? It protects everyone involved. Creators aren't expected to develop their project without necessary funds, and it allows anyone to test concepts without risk.
Each and every project is the independent creation of someone like you.Projects are big and small, serious and whimsical, traditional and experimental. They're inspiring, entertaining and unbelievably diverse. We hope you agree... Welcome to Kickstarter!"
"We are a not–for–profit festival celebrating the wealth of talent working across all genres of short film including live action drama, documentary, animation, music video, and work that pushes boundaries including online or mobile content, title sequences, and idents.
The work of newcomers and established filmmakers is promoted by screening work at cinemas, screening rooms and cafes throughout Soho and London's West End. In conjunction with the competitive program [sic] we hold a large variety of debates and discussions on all aspects of media and filmmaking. The event program [sic] also builds in networking and case studies. Our aims are to provide an arena introducing creativity, new/established practitioners and those partners that can help assist in supporting and furthering people's ideas."
(Soho Shorts, 2011)