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Which clippings match 'Cognitive Science' keyword pg.1 of 2
23 JUNE 2015

Moritz Stefaner: Selfiecity

Moritz Stefaner speaking about his work on the Selfiecity.net project (part 2) at the 'Visualized' conference in New York, 6-7 February 2014.

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TAGS

2014 • Alise Tifentale • amateur cultural production • Amazon Mechanical Turk • BangkokBerlinbig databrowsing interfacecitiescognitive sciencecultural artefactscultural specificity • Daniel Goddemeyer • data abstraction • data filtering • data visualisation • design collaboration • design conferencedigital humanities • Dominikus Baur • faceface recognitionfaces of peoplefacial analysisfacial compositefiltering • human activity • information aestheticsinformation visualisationInstagram • Jay Chow • Lev Manovich • mass selfie • Mehrdad Yazdani • Moritz Stefaner • Moscow • Nadav Hochman • new media artNew Yorkportrait photographSan PaoloselfieSelfiecity (2014)social media projecttelematicsTokyo • University of Applied Sciences Potsdam • University of Osnabrueck • video lecturevisualising dataVisualized conference

CONTRIBUTOR

Liam Birtles
06 APRIL 2014

Limitations of the Decision Cycle Model of Interactive Interfaces

"One central idea missing from the decision cycle model is the notion that goals are often not fully formed in an agent's mind. As anyone who has ever tried to write an essay knows, we do not always act by moving through a decision sequence where we have a clear idea of our goal. Often we explore the world in order to discover our goals. We use the possibilities and resources of our environment to help shape our thoughts and goals, to see what is possible, and we have no clear idea of what we want to do any more than we always have a clear idea of what we are going to write before we begin the process of writing. This is a different orientation than the classical Cartesian view that we know things internally and just communicate fully intact thoughts in external vehicles. In this more dynamic interactionist view, the action of externally formulating thoughts is integral to internally formulating them too. We do not have a clear and distinct idea in mentalese awaiting expression in English or French. The very action of putting 'thoughts' in words helps to formulate them. If this is generally true about many of our actions it means that the goal of an interactive interface is not merely to allow users to do what they want to do, it must also allow them to discover what they want to do. ...

The overhaul I propose to the decision cycle model begins by noting that the way we cope with badly formulated goals and plans is by relying on two facts: we tend to operate in the same workplace over time, and we are usually clever enough to figure out on-line what we must do next. If one observes most creative activity it is apparent that there are both planful and improvisational elements to it. Creative activity is improvisational because agents are opportunistic -- they pursue ideas and possibilities as they emerge regardless of whether those ideas or possibilities have been anticipated. Creative activity is planful because the skilled agent tries to prepare the environment so that he or she has the greatest chance of stumbling on excellent ideas and possibilities. Thus, although an agent may not know, in advance, what he will create, he knows that by doing certain actions, or by arranging the environment in a certain way, or by laying out certain tools, he is doing the best he can to put himself in a position to recognize unimagined possibilities. This setting up the environment to facilitate on-line choice and improvisation I call preparation. It is a key component of skilled activity. There are others. To accommodate them in a decision model requires adding new forms of action, and new forms of interactivity throughout the decision cycle."

(David Kirsh, 1997)

TAGS

1997active learning • agent-environment-agent loop • approaches to ambiguitycognitive sciencecomputational complexity • David Kirsh • decision cycle model of interaction • discovery through designDonald Norman • dynamic interactionist view • ecological approach to cognition • educational constructivism • Edwin Hutchins • environment maintenance • environment preparation • event cognition • explanatory concept of engagement • exploratory actions • human computer interactionimprovised method • interactive interfaces • interactive learning environments • James Gibson • Jim Hollan • John Bransford • learning environment design • mental processes • mentalese • naming process • perception is interactive • personal exploration of phenomena • reshaping the cognitive congeniality of the environment • Robert Shaw • sensory feedback • theory of interactivity • visibility and recognition

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
23 FEBRUARY 2014

Jamie O'Neil: Skipping Slides (building cognitive maps)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
06 DECEMBER 2013

Motive Architecture: spaces which engage social interaction

"Architecture traditionally has been considered the spatial backdrop to social interaction. But increasingly architects enabled by computational technologies are creating spaces that can engage actively within these social interactions. My research focuses on the non verbal aspects of human computer interaction, embedding kinetic behaviours into physical objects. ...

While increasing numbers of designers are using robotic systems to build novel performative objects and spaces, there is little discourse in design on what forms of motion are most engaging and why? I am exploring how, and when, we percieve animism and causality in moving objects as I hypothesise that the most salient of motions are those which give a subjective impression that something is alive. My research examines the minimal amount of motion required to elicit immediate and seemingly irresistible interpretations of life gaining inspiration from the perceptual research of Michotte (1946), Heider and Simmel (1944), and Tremoulet and Feldmann (2006). A test rig for suspending and animating simple geometric figures has been developed to test methods of eliciting anima. Computer vision systems have been developed in parallel to observe human levels of engagement and to explore novel forms of exchange between architecture and inhabitant."

(Ruairi Glynn)

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Albert Michotte • aliveanima • animate form • animational communicationarchitectureautomation • Bartlett School of Architecture • believable charactersbuilt environmentcausalitycognitive science • computational technologies • design research • Fritz Heider • geometric figureshuman computer interactioninteractive architectureinteractive environments • Jacob Feldman • kinetic automatonkinetic bodily logoskinetic sculpture • Marianne Simmel • motive architecture • moving objects • non-linear sequence • nonverbal behaviour • novel forms of exchange • novel performative objects • Patrice Tremoulet • perceptual research • performative spacesphysical engagementphysical objects • Ranulph Glanville • reactive spacerobotic sculpturerobotic systemsRuairi Glynnsocial interaction • spatial backdrop • Stephen Gage • structural forces • test methods • test rig • time-based architecture • time-based art • triggered by stimuli

CONTRIBUTOR

Liam Birtles
18 AUGUST 2013

Thinking aloud: a method for systematically collecting and analysing data about the design process

"Suppose that you want to understand the design process of architects, the knowledge that they use, the cognitive actions that they take and the strategies they employ. How would you go about this? One obvious possibility is to ask some architects how they design a building. Interestingly enough, they will not find this an easy question to answer. They are used to do their job, not to explain it. If they do try to tell you how they go about their design work, it is quite possible that their account of it will be incomplete or even incorrect, because they construct this account from memory. They may be inclined to describe the design process neatly in terms of the formal design methods that they acquired during their professional training, whereas the real design process deviates from these methods. Psychologists have demonstrated that such accounts are not very reliable. Another possibility is to look at the architects' designs and at their intermediate sketches. However, now you are looking at the products of the thought processes of these architects, and not at the thought processes themselves. What is needed are more direct data on the ongoing thinking processes during working on a design. If you want to know how they arrive at their designs, what they think, what is difficult for them and what is easy, how they reconcile conflicting demands, a different research method is needed.

A good method in this situation is to ask architects to work on a design and to instruct them to think aloud. What they say is recorded and used as data for analysis of the design process. This is a very direct method to gain insight in the knowledge and methods of human problem–solving. The speech and writings are called spoken and written protocols. In this book we will describe a method for systematically collecting and analysing such think aloud protocols. This method can be used by psychologists and other social scientists who want to know more about cognitive processes. It is also an important method for knowledge engineers whose goal is to build a knowledgebased computer system on the basis of human expertise."

(Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard, et al., 1994, pp.1–2)

Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard and Jacobijn A.C. Sandberg. (1994). "The Think Aloud Method: A Practical Guide to Modelling Cognitive Processes".

TAGS

academic researchanalysing dataarchitectural thoughtcognitive actionscognitive processescognitive psychologycognitive sciencecognitive theoriesconceptual modeldata collection and analysisdata collection techniquesdesign knowledgedesign process • design strategies • design workdirect observationexperimental knowledgeformal design methods • human expertise • knowledge engineer • knowledge-based systems • problem-solvingpsychological analysispsychological modelsresearch methodsketching ideas • social scientists • spoken protocols • task analysis • testing theories • theoretical model • think aloud (research method) • think aloud protocols • thinking processthought process • unreliable evidence • user testinguser-based evaluation • written protocols

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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