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Which clippings match 'Interoperability' keyword pg.1 of 3
28 OCTOBER 2015

The Free Universal Construction Kit

"Ever wanted to connect your Legos and Tinkertoys together? Now you can — and much more. Announcing the Free Universal Construction Kit: a set of adapters for complete interoperability between 10 popular construction toys.

F.A.T. Lab and Sy-Lab are pleased to present the Free Universal Construction Kit: a matrix of nearly 80 adapter bricks that enable complete interoperability between ten* popular children's construction toys. By allowing any piece to join to any other, the Kit encourages totally new forms of intercourse between otherwise closed systems—enabling radically hybrid constructive play, the creation of previously impossible designs, and ultimately, more creative opportunities for kids. As with other grassroots interoperability remedies, the Free Universal Construction Kit implements proprietary protocols in order to provide a public service unmet—or unmeetable—by corporate interests.

The Free Universal Construction Kit offers adapters between Lego, Duplo, Fischertechnik, Gears! Gears! Gears!, K'Nex, Krinkles (Bristle Blocks), Lincoln Logs, Tinkertoys, Zome, and Zoob. Our adapters can be downloaded from Thingiverse.com and other sharing sites as a set of 3D models in .STL format, suitable for reproduction by personal manufacturing devices like the Makerbot (an inexpensive, open-source 3D printer)."

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20123D printing • adapter brick • adapter bricks • adaptersagency of access and engagementbottom-up innovation • Bristle Blocks • building brick • childhood imagination • connector • construction set • construction system • construction toy • constructions set • disruptive innovationDIY • Duplo • Fischertechnik • freely available • freely downloadable • Gears Gears Gears • Golan Levingrassroots initiativehacktivismhybridityimpurityinteroperabilityinteroperable technologies • KNex • Krinkles • LEGO • Lincoln Logs • Makerbot • mash-upnew hybridityopen systems • personal manufacturing devices • Physibles • proprietary protocols • proprietary technologiesremix culturerethink boundaries • Shawn Sims • STUDIO for Creative Inquiry • Tinkertoys • toy • Universal Construction Kit • Zome • Zoo

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 FEBRUARY 2014

An Introduction to the Federated Social Network

"To understand how federated social networking would be an improvement, we should understand how online social networking essentially works today. Right now, when you sign up for Facebook, you get a Facebook profile, which is a collection of data about you that lives on Facebook's servers. You can add words and pictures to your Facebook profile, and your Facebook profile can have a variety of relationships – it can be friends with other Facebook profiles, it can be a 'fan' of another Facebook page, or 'like' a web page containing a Facebook widget. Crucially, if you want to interact meaningfully with anyone else's Facebook profile or any application offered on the Facebook platform, you have to sign up with Facebook and conduct your online social networking on Facebook's servers, and according to Facebook's rules and preferences. (You can replace 'Facebook' with 'Orkut,' 'LinkedIn,' 'Twitter,' and essentially tell the same story.)

We've all watched the dark side of this arrangement unfold, building a sad catalog of the consequences of turning over data to a social networking company. The social networking company might cause you to overshare information that you don't want shared, or might disclose your information to advertisers or the government, harming your privacy. And conversely, the company may force you to undershare by deleting your profile, or censoring information that you want to see make it out into the world, ultimately curbing your freedom of expression online. And because the company may do this, governments might attempt to require them to do it, sometimes even without asking or informing the end–user.

How will federated social networks be different? The differences begin with the code behind online social networking. The computer code that gives you a Facebook profile is built in a closed way – it's proprietary and kept relatively secret by Facebook, so you have to go through Facebook to create, maintain, and interact with Facebook profiles or applications.

But federated social network developers are doing two things differently in order to build a new ecosystem. First, the leading federated social networking software is open–source: that means that anybody can download the source code, and use it to create and maintain social networking profiles for themselves and others. Second, the developers are simultaneously collaborating on a new common language, presumably seeking an environment where most or even all federated social networking profiles can talk to one another.

What will that likely mean in practice? To join a federated social network, you'll be able to choose from an array of 'profile providers,' just like you can choose an email provider. You will even be able to set up your own server and provide your social networking profile yourself. And in a federated social network, any profile can talk to another profile – even if it's on a different server.

Imagine the Web as an open sea. To use Facebook, you have to immigrate to Facebook Island and get a Facebook House, in a land with a single ruler. But the distributed social networks being developed now will allow you to choose from many islands, connected to one another by bridges, and you can even have the option of building your own island and your own bridges."

(Richard Esguerra, 21 March 21 2011, Electronic Frontier Foundation)

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2011abstraction layeragency of access and engagementautonomy • centralised infrastructure • centralised platformcommon interfaceComputer Supported Cooperative Work • content distribution networks • data contextdecentralisation • decentralised architecture • decentralised infrastructure • distributed ecosystemdistributed models • distributed social network • Distributed Social Networking (DOSN) • distributed social networks • distributed systemElectronic Frontier Foundation • Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) • Facebook • Federated Social Networks (FSN) • Google Wave Federation Protocol • hCard • information ecosysteminteroperabilityknowledge commonsLinkedInlocalisationmultiplatform • OAuth • Online Social Networks (OSN) • open architecture • open protocol • Open Stack • open standardsOpenID • OpenSocial • Orkut • OStatus • peer-to-peer exchange • Portable Contacts (open protocol) • social network aggregation services • software portability • structural abstraction • system scalability • technology integrationTwitter • user application data • user autonomy • Wave Federation Protocol • web feeds • web services • XFN • XRD

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 NOVEMBER 2013

PhoneGap: Adobe's mobile development framework

"Building applications for each device–iPhone, Android, Windows Mobile and more–requires different frameworks and languages. PhoneGap solves this by using standards–based web technologies to bridge web applications and mobile devices. Since PhoneGap apps are standards compliant, they're future–proofed to work with browsers as they evolve."

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2012Adobe Systems IncAndroid OS • Apache Callback • Apache Cordova • Apache License • Apache Software Foundation (ASF)application developmentappsBlackBerry Ltdcross-platformCSS3 • device-specific languages • enabling technologiesHTML5 • hybrid code snippets • hybrid technologyIBMinteroperabilityiOS • iPhone application development • JavaJavaScriptMicrosoftmobile apps • mobile development framework • mobile devices • mobile platform • native code snippets • native device APIs • Nitobi Software • Objective-C • open frameworkopen source • open source framework • open source platform • PhoneGap • PhoneGap Deploy • platform independent • Research in Motion (RIM) • RIM • SDKsoftware deploymentsoftware framework • software wrapper • standardisationstandards compliantstandards-based web technologiesweb application developmentweb standardsweb technologiesWindows Mobile

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 APRIL 2012

Beta blockers? : proprietary data formats may be legally defensible but open standards can be a better spur for innovation

"Thomson [Thomson Reuters] makes the proprietary bibliography software EndNote, and claims that Zotero is causing its commercial business 'irreparable harm' and is wilfully and intentionally destroying Thomson's customer base. In particular, Thomson is demanding that GMU stop distributing the newer beta–version of Zotero that allegedly allows EndNote's proprietary data format for storing journal citation styles to be converted into an open–standard format readable by Zotero and other software. Thomson claims that Zotero 'reverse engineered or decompiled' not only the format, but also the EndNote software itself. ...

Litigation, which may go to a jury trial, is pending, so judging this case on its legal merits would be premature. But on a more general level, the virtues of interoperability and easy data–sharing among researchers are worth restating. Imagine if Microsoft Word or Excel files could be opened and saved only in these proprietary formats, for example. It would be impossible for OpenOffice and other such software to read and save these files using open standards – as they can legally do.

Competition between open–source and proprietary software is long–running, as personified by the struggle between Windows and Linux for desktop and server operating systems, but also in many branches of software used by scientists. Researchers tend to lean towards open sharing, but they will also pay for added–value features, and it's important that the playing field is level. Ultimately, the customer is king."

(Nature, p.708)

Nature Volume 455, p.708 (9 October 2008) | doi:10.1038/455708a; Published online 8 October 2008, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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2006 • added-value features • authorshipbibliography softwareCenter for History and New MediacitationcopyrightDan Cohen • data format • digital informationEndNoteGeorge Mason Universityinteroperabilityknowledge integrationlawsuitlevel playing fieldLinuxMicrosoft ExcelMicrosoft WindowsMicrosoft WordNature (journal) • open sharing • open sourceopen source filesopen source software • open standard format • open standards • OpenOffice • operating systemorganise and share • OS • ownershipproprietary • proprietary data formats • proprietary formats • proprietary software • researchersreverse engineering • science news • science policy • Sean Takatssoftwaretechnology • Thomson Reuters • trademark infringment • Zotero

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 JUNE 2011

Towards implementation of Library 2.0 and the e-Framework

"This is a period of uncertainty and change in HE libraries in terms of institutional systems, user perceptions, globalisation of services and communities and new technologies. Users expect ease of discovery, workflow and delivery influenced by Google and Web2.0. In this context, JISC is working towards an Information Environment for learning, teaching and research, involving deep integration of services and resources within the personal, institutional, national and global landscape.

The precursor JISC and SCONUL Library Management Systems study (April 2008) highlights challenges relating to practice, services and products. Meanwhile ideas are constantly being developed by early adopters, which offer opportunities to understand user expectations, gather professional practice and identify technical demands."

(JISC, UK)

2). Download page for JISC project reports

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2008 • bibliotheque • deep integration • e-Framework • early adopters • ease of delivery • ease of discovery • ease of workflow • globalisation of services and communities • Google Inc • HE libraries • information environment • institutional systems • interoperabilityJISClearning environmentLibrary 2.0Library Management Systemsnew technologiesprofessional practiceresearch environment • SCONUL • services and resources • teaching environment • technical demands • UKuncertainty • user expectations • user perceptions • Web 2.0

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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