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12 NOVEMBER 2012

What is Sentiment Analysis?

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TAGS

2012 • affective state • affinity analysis • appraisal theory • attitudescalmness • Chris Manning • computational linguistics • consumer confidence • content analysis • contextual polarity • correlationsCoursera (provider) • Dan Jurafsky • dispositions • emotional effect • emotional state • evaluation • Gallup Poll • intended emotional communication • judgmentmotivational needsnatural language processing • opinion extraction • opinion mining • personal preference • positive effectspredictive analytics • product aspects • product attributes • product search • sentiment analysisStanford Universitystock market • subjective information • text analysis • Twitter sentiment • user attitudesuser perspectiveusers and products

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 JULY 2009

Communities of practice and habitus: A critique

"'The conditionings associated with a particular class of conditions of existence produce habitus, systems of durable, transposable dispositions, structured structures predisposed to function as structuring structures, that is, as principles which generate and organize practices and representations that can be objectively adapted to their outcomes without presupposing a conscious aiming at ends or an express mastery of the operations necessary in order to attain them. Objectively 'regulated' and 'regular' without being in any way the product of obedience to rules, they can be collectively orchestrated without being the product of the organizing action of a conductor.' (Bourdieu 1990: 53)

If we explore this statement, we see, first, an explicit link between patterns of thought and social conditions. Particular forms of social condition produce particular forms of habitus. The habitus is in turn not so much a content as a set of principles, principles which are embodied, expressed in the hauteur of the aristocrat or the stance of the peasant. Rather than a focus on particular contexts in which principles can be employed, the emphasis is on the way in which a similar set of principles is employed across contexts, is 'applied, by simple transfer, to the most dissimilar areas of practice' (Bourdieu 1986: 175). A crucial factor in this application is then whether they are appropriate to the particular rules of the game. Bourdieu is particularly concerned to stress the practical mastery of the rules of the game and the effortless performance of rules without the recognition that such rules are being followed. The rules emerge from the ebb and flow of practice and are inherent in the relations that operate in a particular field. 'There is', argues Bourdieu (1990: 50), 'an economy of practices, a reason immanent in practices, whose 'origin' lies neither in the 'decisions' of reason understood as rational calculation nor in the determinations of mechanisms external to and superior to the agents.' However, the ability to employ the appropriate strategies depends on the tacit acquisition of generative principles that depend on social position. Those from different social conditions will tend to respond in the same way, because of the objective conditions of existence that they share (Bourdieu 1990: 58). Their early experiences will be crucial in determining their future responses, as they will tend to react to new experiences by assimilating them to the generative principles they acquired (Bourdieu 1990: 60). The focus on practice is clearly attractive to those developing the notion of communities of practice (Wenger 1999: 281 note 6), but we need to recognize that for Bourdieu habitus is prior to practice a nd regulates it. This seems to give problems for conceptions that privilege the development of modes of operation through practice. If habitus, as Bourdieu has it, is acquired at an early stage in an unconscious fashion and is resistant to change, then the issue is the interaction between habitus and practice, rather than its creation through practice."
(Alistair Mutch, 2003)

TAGS

communities of practiceCoPdispositionsEtienne Wengerhabitus • hauteur • organisation studies • organisational communication • patterns of thoughtPierre Bourdieusocial conditions

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 JULY 2009

Pierre Bourdieu: Physical Space, Social Space and Habitus

"Habitus are structured structures, generative principles of distinct and distinctive principles – what the worker eats, and especially the way he eats it, the sport he practices and the way he practices it, his political opinions and the way he expresses them are systematically different from the industrial proprietor's corresponding activities / habitus are also structured structures, different classifying schemes classification principles, different principles of vision and division, different tastes. Habitus make different differences; they implement distinctions between what is distinguished and what is vulgar, and so on, but they are not the same. Thus, for instance, the same behaviour or even the same good appear distinguished to one person, pretentious to someone else. and cheap or showy to yet another."
(Pierre Bourdieu, 1996)

[1] Bourdieu, P. (1996). 'Vilhelm Aubert memorial lecture: Physical Space, Social Space and Habitus'. Oslo, Department of Sociology, University of Oslo & Institute for Social Research.

TAGS

1995agencyculturedispositionshabithabituspatternphysical spacePierre Bourdieupracticessocial constructionism • social makeup • social spacespace • structured structures • taste formations • tastes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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