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Which clippings match 'Pierre Bourdieu' keyword pg.1 of 2
08 OCTOBER 2017

Understanding through Pictures versus an Understanding about Pictures

"When developing qualitative methods for the interpretation of pictures, it seems to be important not to explain pictures by texts, but to differentiate them from texts. Nevertheless, it seems equally important to develop common standards or methodological devices which are relevant for the interpretation of texts, as well as for the interpretation of pictures. Examples of common standards are: to treat the text as well as the picture as a self-referential system, to differentiate between explicit and implicit (atheoretical) knowledge, to change the analytic stance from the question What to the question How, to reconstruct the formal structures of texts as well as pictures in order to integrate single elements into the over-all context, and—last but not least—to use comparative analysis. The application or realization of these common standards and methodological devices in the field of the interpretation of pictures, however, has to be quite different from that of the interpretation of texts, if we intend to advance to iconicity as a self-contained domain, to its inherent laws and to its autonomy independent from texts."

(Ralf Bohnsack, 2008)

Volume 9, No. 3, Art. 26 – September 2008, Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research.


Alfred Schutz • analytic mentality • atheoretical knowledge • Bildlichkeit • Charles Goodwin • communicative knowledge • comparative analysis • conjunctive knowledge • conversational analysis • cultural phenomena • documentary meaning • Documentary Method of Interpretation • empirical social sciences • Erving Goffman • Erwin Panofsky • ethnomethodology • formal compositional structure • Forum Qualitative Social Research • Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung • FQS • Gottfried Boehm • Hans Belting • Harold GarfinkelHarvey Sacks • hyper-ritualization • iconic meaning • iconicityiconography • iconology • image-based understanding • immanent meaning • interpretative methods • Karl MannheimKarl Popper • linguistic turn • literal meaning • Martin Heidegger • Max Imdahl • meaning image-based depictions • Niklas Luhmann • Peter BergerPierre Bourdieuplanimetric composition • Praxeological Sociology of Knowledge • qualitative methodsqualitative research • Ralf Bohnsack • research practiceRoland Barthes • self-referential systems • semantic structure • semiotics • sequence analysis • simultaneitysocial phenomenasocial realitysociologysociology of knowledgetacit knowledge • text interpretation • theory of action • Thomas Luckmann • transcontrariness • typification • Umberto Ecovideo analysis • visible phenomena


Simon Perkins
28 DECEMBER 2013

Design genius or author as editor: filtering and synthesising?

"In 'What is an author?' [4], Michel Foucault says we are 'accustomed to presenting the author as a genius.' We see the author as the 'genial creator' of work in which he gives us, 'with infinite wealth and generosity,' an inexhaustible world of meanings. (Being 'creative' always has a positive ring, whatever is produced!) Foucault says that the author does not 'precede' the work: ideas and meanings are already there and the author's role is to 'choose,' to filter and synthesise to create output. (Foucault also emphasises 'limiting' and 'excluding'). The author's role is to limit the proliferation of meanings and present a personal view of the world. Yet the 'genius author' is represented as a continual source of invention–the opposite of his genuine function."

(Monika Parrinder, 2000, Eye Magazine)


April Greiman • art and designart market • art star • artisanartist • artist myth • artistic solutions • Atelier Populaire • auteur theoryauthor as editor • author as genius • avant-garde artists • being creative • blur boundaries • bohemian • Brigit Fowler • Bruce Mau • canonisation • celebritycliche • constructed idea • creative geniuscreative individuals • creative intuition • cult of the author • cult of the individual • cultural elite • Cunst Art • cutting-edge innovationsDavid Carsondesign community • Design Quarterly • design star • designer as author • editing through selectionEuropean EnlightenmentEye (magazine)fine art • Fran Cottell • genial creator • genius • genius author • genius creator • genius myth • genius of the individual • genius status • graphic authorship • graphic design • Griselda Pollock • Hard Werken • history of ideas • ID Magazine • ingenue • innate talent • inspired visionaries • intuitioninventionJohn Maeda • John Walker • legitimate discipline • liberal artslone genius • lone pioneer • madman • maverick graphic designer • Michael Howe • Michael RockMichel Foucaultmodernismmyth of the geniusNeville Brodynon-conformist • ordinary mortal • Paul RandPentagram Designpersonapersonal expressionpersonal visionpersonalityPeter SavillePierre Bourdieupioneerromantic notion of the artist • Rozsika Parker • self-aggrandisement • self-taught • semi-divine status • solitary • spiritual insight • status • talenttaste (sociology) • Terry Jones • Tomato (design agency)tortured soul • ubermeister • visionary


Simon Perkins
23 MARCH 2013

Toward a Theory of Social Practices: A development in culturalist theorizing

"This article works out the main characteristics of 'practice theory', a type of social theory which has been sketched by such authors as Bourdieu, Giddens, Taylor, late Foucault and others. Practice theory is presented as a conceptual alternative to other forms of social and cultural theory, above all to culturalist mentalism, textualism and intersubjectivism. The article shows how practice theory and the three other cultural–theoretical vocabularies differ in their localization of the social and in their conceptualization of the body, mind, things, knowledge, discourse, structure/process and the agent."

(Andreas Reckwitz, 2002)

Andreas Reckwitz (2002). "Toward a Theory of Social Practices: A Development in Culturalist Theorizing", European Journal of Social Theory; Vol.5, No.2; pp. 243–263 DOI: 10.1177/13684310222225432 []


2002 • Andreas Reckwitz • Anthony Giddens • background practices • bodily engagementbodyCharles Taylor • conceptual alternative • conceptualisation • cultural-theoretical vocabularies • culturalist mentalism • culturediscoursediscourse and practice • European Journal of Social Theory • interpersonal interactions • intersubjectivism • knowledge • mental representations • Michel Foucaultmind • mind and body • Pierre Bourdieu • practice theory • shared understandingsocial agency • social and cultural life • social and cultural theory • social theory • textualism • theory of things • things


Simon Perkins
12 MARCH 2011

Design knowledge or design, communication and culture?

"The problem with any debate over design is that the intellectual resources with which the debate is typically engaged are themselves located within the field, and the competing definitions of design is the terrain over which struggles are fought and the resources used in those struggles. Each actor (or in this case, each designer) engages in these struggles and does so from a position within the field; each has a situated viewpoint and this viewpoint shapes the analysis of the field (Bourdieu, 1983). Thus, there is a need to be able to view the field afresh, from a perspective that is not associated with any specific position within the field but rather objectifies the field. This is not to argue for an 'ultimate–truth' perspective, but rather to suggest that, in order to be able to analyse the debates, one needs specific kinds of tools. Designers work with knowledge to 'do' design. When analysing the field of design the object of study has now shifted: it is not the design object but knowledge itself as an object that is being studied. For engineering a bridge, engineering knowledge is valuable; for designing a house, architectural knowledge is valuable. For analysing knowledge, a theory of knowledge itself is valuable."

(Lucila Carvalho, Andy Dong & Karl Maton, 2009, p.485)

Fig.1 Legitimation codes of specialisation Source: Maton (2007:97)

2). Carvalho, L., Dong, A. & Maton, K. (2009) 'Legitimating design: A sociology of knowledge account of the field', Design Studies 30(5): 483–502.
[An interesting yet epistemologically flawed effort. The paper seems to stumble through its attempt to occupy a neutral perspective on design knowledge. In doing so falls into the familiar trap of positioning 'creativity' and 'originality' against 'critical thinking' and 'analysis'. It attempts to advance a thesis based on the romantic notion of the individual whose process of design appears to operate independently from culture and any effort to communicate with an audience.] ––>



Andy Dong • architecturearchitecture designBasil Bernsteincodes of specialisationcreativity • critical realism • cultural practicescultural studiesculture medium • design and communication • design and culture • design culturesdesign knowledgedesign studiesdiffering groundsdigital mediadigital media designdisciplinary knowledgeDonald Schon • elite code • embodiment of knowledgeempirical researchenculturationengineeringengineering design • epistemic relation • fashion design • Gestaltungsgeist • habitusindividualisminterdisciplinarity • internalised codes • intersubjective • Jacob Grimm • Judith Dijkhuis • Karl Maton • Karl PopperKees Dorst • knower • knower code • knowledge • knowledge code • languages of legitimation • LCT • legitimacylegitimate knowledge • Legitimation Code Theory • legitimation codes • Lucila Carvalho • Michel FoucaultPierre Bourdieu • post-disciplinarity • post-disciplinepragmatismqualitativequalitative researchqualitative studyrealisation rulesrecognition rules • relativist code • rules • rules of the game • social practices • social relation • sociologyspecialisation • Sprachgeist


Simon Perkins
03 JULY 2009

Communities of practice and habitus: A critique

"'The conditionings associated with a particular class of conditions of existence produce habitus, systems of durable, transposable dispositions, structured structures predisposed to function as structuring structures, that is, as principles which generate and organize practices and representations that can be objectively adapted to their outcomes without presupposing a conscious aiming at ends or an express mastery of the operations necessary in order to attain them. Objectively 'regulated' and 'regular' without being in any way the product of obedience to rules, they can be collectively orchestrated without being the product of the organizing action of a conductor.' (Bourdieu 1990: 53)

If we explore this statement, we see, first, an explicit link between patterns of thought and social conditions. Particular forms of social condition produce particular forms of habitus. The habitus is in turn not so much a content as a set of principles, principles which are embodied, expressed in the hauteur of the aristocrat or the stance of the peasant. Rather than a focus on particular contexts in which principles can be employed, the emphasis is on the way in which a similar set of principles is employed across contexts, is 'applied, by simple transfer, to the most dissimilar areas of practice' (Bourdieu 1986: 175). A crucial factor in this application is then whether they are appropriate to the particular rules of the game. Bourdieu is particularly concerned to stress the practical mastery of the rules of the game and the effortless performance of rules without the recognition that such rules are being followed. The rules emerge from the ebb and flow of practice and are inherent in the relations that operate in a particular field. 'There is', argues Bourdieu (1990: 50), 'an economy of practices, a reason immanent in practices, whose 'origin' lies neither in the 'decisions' of reason understood as rational calculation nor in the determinations of mechanisms external to and superior to the agents.' However, the ability to employ the appropriate strategies depends on the tacit acquisition of generative principles that depend on social position. Those from different social conditions will tend to respond in the same way, because of the objective conditions of existence that they share (Bourdieu 1990: 58). Their early experiences will be crucial in determining their future responses, as they will tend to react to new experiences by assimilating them to the generative principles they acquired (Bourdieu 1990: 60). The focus on practice is clearly attractive to those developing the notion of communities of practice (Wenger 1999: 281 note 6), but we need to recognize that for Bourdieu habitus is prior to practice a nd regulates it. This seems to give problems for conceptions that privilege the development of modes of operation through practice. If habitus, as Bourdieu has it, is acquired at an early stage in an unconscious fashion and is resistant to change, then the issue is the interaction between habitus and practice, rather than its creation through practice."
(Alistair Mutch, 2003)


communities of practiceCoPdispositionsEtienne Wengerhabitus • hauteur • organisation studies • organisational communication • patterns of thoughtPierre Bourdieusocial conditions


Simon Perkins

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