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Which clippings match 'Kodak Eastman' keyword pg.1 of 1
16 SEPTEMBER 2013

How to deal with the demands of the rapidly evolving new technology and yet further the aesthetics of our filmic art?

"With digital capture and even digital intermediates, it becomes very easy to think of the image in the simplest of terms: contrast, saturation and color bias. But I think too often we forget about texture and sharpness. Film has organic grain texture that simply doesn't exist in digital cinematography. I'm not a film 'purist' but I think it's safe to say that with the advent of radical advances in digital cinema technology there has been a certain homogenization of the cinematographic image in regard to look and texture. It is common to shoot for an evenly distributed rich digital negative (protect the highlights, see into the shadows) with plenty of sharpness to endure the color correction suite and create the look in post. Everybody shoots the sensor the same way.

Painting is a great influence on me. Whenever I can I go to museums and look at the classics, the Dutch masters, Rembrandt and Georges de la Tour. Looking at these old paintings can be inspiring. These are the basics for cameramen because we can learn lighting from them. We can study the classic paintings and try to use that technique of lighting in our photography. I have lots of picture books at home–photography books and art books. When we did McCabe and Mrs. Miller, I showed a book of Andrew Wyeth's paintings to Bob Altman and said, 'What do you think of these faded, soft, pastel images?' And he liked it. Then I took the same book to the lab and explained to them that this was what we were aiming for. They understood right away why we were flashing the film. So it helps; a picture is worth ten thousand words. A picture can immediately tell you your feelings about something.

With digital capture, we have been given a completely different set of tools, trading physical lab processes for computer–driven non–destructive techniques, creating possibilities for the image to be pushed any way we wish in post. In a time when film is disappearing fast and digital is making progress in image quality improvement, it has become important for cinematographers to master these new tools."

(Vilmos Zsigmond ASC HSC, IMAGO European Federation of Cinematographers)

TAGS

aesthetics • American Society of Cinematgraphers (ASC) • Andrew Wyeth • ARRI Alexas • art of colour • available lightcamera technologycinematographycolour • colour bias • colour correctioncolour saturation • colourist • computer-driven techniques • digital capturedigital cinema technologydigital cinematography • digital intermediates • digital negativedigital picturesdigital progressdigital technology • European Federation of Cinematographers • faded images • film grain • film grain texture • film lighting • filmic art • filmmaking • Georges de La Tour • GoProimage contrast • image highlights • image manipulation • image quality • image shadows • image sharpness • image tone • IMAGO European Federation of Cinematographers • iPhone cinematographyKodak Eastman • lab process • light exposure • look and texture • low lightmaking process • McCabe and Mrs Miller (1971) • mobile video productionnew technology • non-destructive techniques • organic grain texture • painting with light • pastel colours • post-productionpre-productionrapid technological changeRED ONERembrandt van Rijn • retraining • Robert Altman • soft image quality • Sony camerataste (sociology) • taste cultivation • taste formations • Vilmos Zsigmond • visual compositionvisual representation • visual richness • visual sensibilityvisual storytelling • visual texture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 JULY 2013

The key image of the present day is the man in the motor car

"In all of these experiments, aborted works, happenings, events, the motif of the car crash is crucial. Ballard sought to understand the role that automobile styling, and mass consumerism, plays in our lives. His sights were set on what he saw as the built–in death drive that technology embodies, the effacing of identity, the shutting off of our neurological systems. Our willingness to submit to the amniotic bliss of the technological womb. Of course, today we know where all this would eventually beach: his 1973 masterpiece, Crash. But in 1971 Ballard was still pushing the farthest limits of his obsession, refining riffs and routines, expanding the parameters of the car crash as far as popular culture would allow. Crucially this was far beyond the stuffy confines of 'literature', which Ballard has never had much time for, and into visual art and film: the realm of the popular imaginary."

(Simon Sellars, 10 August 2007, Ballardian)

Fig.1 dir. Harley Cokeliss, "Towards Crash!", 1971. 16 mm Eastmancolor transferred to video, sound, 17:34 min. Courtesy the artist. © BBC TV 1971.

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TAGS

16mm197120th centuryabsurd condition of humanityBBC TVBBC2bodily formbodybody experiencecarcar crash • car wash • collisionconsumerismcrashcrash test • crash test dummy • death • Eastmancolor • experimental filmGabrielle Drake • Harley Cokeliss • Harley Cokliss • human interpretation • J G Ballard • James Mossman • Kodak Eastmanmachine aestheticmeaninglessness of life • motorcar • motoristprotection • romancing technology • romanticismsex and machines • styling • suffering and inevitable deathtechnological shaping of sociality • technological system • technoromanticism • The Atrocity Exhibition (1970) • Towards Crash (1971) • traumavisual codes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
16 JANUARY 2012

Technological change: The last Kodak moment?

"LENIN is said to have sneered that a capitalist will sell you the rope to hang him. The quote may be spurious, but it contains a grain of truth. Capitalists quite often invent the technology that destroys their own business.

Eastman Kodak is a picture–perfect example. It built one of the first digital cameras in 1975. That technology, followed by the development of smartphones that double as cameras, has battered Kodak's old film– and camera–making business almost to death. ...

While Kodak suffers, its long–time rival Fujifilm is doing rather well. The two firms have much in common. Both enjoyed lucrative near–monopolies of their home markets: Kodak selling film in America, Fujifilm in Japan. A good deal of the trade friction during the 1990s between America and Japan sprang from Kodak's desire to keep cheap Japanese film off its patch.

Both firms saw their traditional business rendered obsolete. But whereas Kodak has so far failed to adapt adequately, Fujifilm has transformed itself into a solidly profitable business, with a market capitalisation, even after a rough year, of some $12.6 billion to Kodak's $220m. Why did these two firms fare so differently?

Both saw change coming. Larry Matteson, a former Kodak executive who now teaches at the University of Rochester's Simon School of Business, recalls writing a report in 1979 detailing, fairly accurately, how different parts of the market would switch from film to digital, starting with government reconnaissance, then professional photography and finally the mass market, all by 2010. He was only a few years out.

Fujifilm, too, saw omens of digital doom as early as the 1980s. It developed a three–pronged strategy: to squeeze as much money out of the film business as possible, to prepare for the switch to digital and to develop new business lines.

Both firms realised that digital photography itself would not be very profitable. 'Wise businesspeople concluded that it was best not to hurry to switch from making 70 cents on the dollar on film to maybe five cents at most in digital,' says Mr Matteson. But both firms had to adapt; Kodak was slower."

(The Economist, 14 January 2012)

Fig.1 John Terret (03 Nov 2011). "Kodak misses the moment", Al Jazeera.

Fig.2 Kodak (1922). "Kodachrome Film Test".

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TAGS

19221975cameracamera-making businesscapitalismcolour • complacency • convergence • death knell • demise • digital cameradisruptive innovationEastman Kodak • film test • FujifilmJapanKodachrome • Kodachrome Film Test • KodakKodak Eastman • Kodak moment • market dominanceobsolescenceold media • picture-perfect • product designradical innovationsmartphonetechnological changetechnological innovationtechnologytechnology innovationVladimir Lenin

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 JUNE 2009

R.I.P. Kodachrome, 1935-2009

"Even an imploring Paul Simon chorus couldn't save it. Kodak is taking Kodachrome away. The company has announced that it will retire the world's first commercially successful color film, which today accounts for 'a fraction of one percent of Kodak's total sales of still–picture films,' according to a press release. While Kodak remains the global leader in the dwindling film business, the company now derives about 70% of its revenues from commercial and consumer digital businesses.

You–or your parents, or their storage unit–probably have albums full of Kodachrome memories, but Kodak has arranged its own online slide show of 'great Kodachrome moments' (best viewed with the aforementioned anthem playing, preferably on a record player)."
(mediabistro.com, 30 June 2009)

[Despite being responsible for capturing such historical moments as John F. Kennedy's assassination Kodachrome film has now been officially usurped (by digital photography).]

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TAGS

19352009analoguechangeend of an era • George Eastman • innovationJohn F Kennedy • K-14 • K-64 • KodachromeKodakKodak Eastman • Museum of Photography and Film • obsolescenceobsolete • Paul Simon • photophotographyredundant technologyRochestertechnologytransformation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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