Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'Contingency' keyword pg.1 of 2
06 OCTOBER 2013

Modern medicine evokes a Cartesian mind-body dualism

"If we look at the history of medicine, we can see that it became what it is today because of a sweeping social transformation that modernized Europe centuries ago. Urbanization and commerce, along with Protestantism and the Catholic Counter–Reformation, encouraged new ways of conceiving and interacting with nature. It was within this context that 'scientific medicine' was invented and elaborated. The particular scientific model that became predominant in Europe in the seventeenth century accepted the mind–body dualism of René Descartes, for whom the human body is a self–contained, entirely material machine. His contemporary, Baruch Spinoza, on the other hand, elaborated a more relational view, stemming from a Jewish tradition that regards the body as essential to a complex and ultimately spiritual being, and all beings as mutually dependent.

Spinoza's perspective is no less compatible with scientific medicine than the Cartesian view. For science has two complementary ways of explaining: by taking apart–as atomic physics mainly does–and by bringing into relation–as Einstein's relativity theory does. Spinoza was quite aware of the power of the first approach, as elaborated by Descartes and advanced by technologies such as the newly invented microscope. Spinoza acknowledges that the human body is composed of parts, and those parts of smaller parts still. But he recognizes also that bodies are encompassed by, and can be adequately understood only in relation to, unities larger than themselves, until we reach the widest system of all, which is 'the whole of nature.' Spinoza was an early exponent of what is known today as 'systems theory.'

Medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries could have taken a more integrative path, in keeping with Spinoza's insight that we are guardians not only of our bodies, taken individually, but of the entire domain of nature with which they are continuous. Instead–for reasons that this essay will explore – mainstream medicine adopted the Cartesian machine model."

(Raymond Barglow, Tikkun Magazine, March 2002)

1

TAGS

16th century17th centuryAlbert Einstein • atomic physics • atomisticBaruch Spinozabodybringing into relation • Cartesian machine model • Cartesian view • Catholiccomplexitycomposed of partscontingencydualismhealth carehistory of medicinehuman bodyintegrative practices • Jewish tradition • Judaism • mainstream medicine • man and nature • material machine • medicinemicroscopemind-body dualismnatureProtestantismrelational aestheticsrelational viewRene Descartessciencescientific medicine • scientific model • self-contained • social transformation • spiritual being • systems theorytaking apart • theory of relativity • urbansation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
28 APRIL 2010

An assemblage of connecting parts that defies traditional climactic and dissipative character

"The complexities already evident in L'anti–oedipe are compounded by Deleuze and Guattari's deliberate refusal to propose a central narrative or theme for the book [A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia]. They refer to the sections in Mille plateaux as 'plateaus', a term they derived from the anthropological work of Gregory Bateson. Bateson had used the term to describe the libidinal economy he found in Bali, which differed from that in the West, with its emphasis on climax. Deleuze and Guattari intended that the sections of their book should not reproduce the climactic and dissipative character of Western discourse, as manifested in the traditional book format with its culminations and terminations. They hoped rather that each plateau would operate as part of an assemblage of connecting parts to be approached by the reader in whichever order they chose. As this might suggest Mille plateaux is a complex and difficult book, though, at the same time, extraordinarily compelling."

(Charlie Gere)

Gere, Charlie. 2002 'Digital Culture' Reaktion Books. ISBN 1861891431 1861891431 (pbk.)

1

TAGS

anthropologyassemblage • Bali • bookbook formatCharlie Gere • climactic • climax • connecting parts • constellationscontingencycritical theorydiscoursediscursive field • dissipative • Félix GuattariGilles DeleuzeGregory BatesonIndonesia • L'anti-oedipe • libidinalnarrativeordering • plateau • plateaus • postmodernismstructurethemetraditionWestern

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 MARCH 2010

The Social Construction of Knowledge

"The partiality of the view of the world portrayed by science leaves a great deal unsaid and untheorised, even though, from a scientific point of view, knowledge is characterised as a unified field (Feyerabend, P) Furthermore, a significant aspect of the partiality of science is embedded in its supposed objectivity. It portrays the world from everywhere and nowhere at the same time. Scientific utterances about reality are without human agency. It describes the world as it is, not as any particular scientist views it. Yet science itself is the product of human agency. Its proponents have beliefs and prejudices which they purport to leave aside when they are engaged in the business of science. The power of Foucault's analysis, is to show that this objectivity is an illusion. What he suggests is that science, the paramount foundation of knowledge in our society, is ideologically contaminated – that it operates for and through specific power interests whose view of the world it reinforces. Since almost the entire edifice of knowledge and education is built upon this foundation, the assertion clearly requires further explication."

(Tony Ward, 2008)

Feyerabend, P., Against Method, Verso, London, 1988.

1

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 NOVEMBER 2009

Pedestrian Rhetoric and Scaffolding for Meaning

"naked city's fragments are linked by arrows, but fragments which are linked to each other are in different orientations and do not have any logical or straightforward relation to each other. the fragments do not include all of paris and the distance of the gaps between fragments do not illustrate the real distance between fragments. the arrows, while facilitating the egress of our imaginary psychogeographical wanderer, also seems to put spatial distance between the fragments, creating the gap, which is like what Michel de Certeau (chapter on Walking in the City – The Practice of Everyday Life) describes as a procedure of 'Asyndeton', or 'opening gaps in the spatial continuum' and 'retaining only selected parts of it that amount almost to relics'."

(无认屋)

1

TAGS

1957architecturecontingencydesigndiagramdiscursive fieldengagementenvironmentephemeraeveryday lifefragmentaryfragmentsGuy Debord • in context • in situinformation spaceinterpretationmapmeaningMichel de Certeau • Naked City • orderingParisplacepsychogeographyrelationrhetoric • scaffolding • Situationistssocial interactionspacestructuretactic • Walking in the City • wanderer

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 MAY 2009

Integrative Complexity: the degree to which thinking and reasoning involve the recognition and integration of multiple perspectives and possibilities and their interrelated contingencies

"We have identified a robust arena of research in social, personality, and organizational psychology on a concept called 'integrative complexity', upon which we base our outcome measure. Integrative complexity (Suedfield, Tetlock, & Streufert, 1992) refers to the degree to which thinking and reasoning involve the recognition and integration of multiple perspectives and possibilities and their interrelated contingencies.
...
Integrative complexity is a specific cognitive style that concerns the differentiation and integration of dimensions. Differentiation refers to the degree to which persons use different dimensions to discuss an issue. For instance, if a person uses a single dimension (e.g., good–bad) to discuss the issue, there would be no differentiation. Assuming that there is differentiation, the second aspect of integrative complexity concerns the degree to which two or more dimensions are related or connected. There can be no integration, some integration, or complex integration. The greater the degree of integration, the greater the integrative complexity. A person exhibiting the lowest level of integrative complexity recognizes only one perspective to a problem or an issue. Persons with higher levels of complexity recognize the existence of alternative perspectives, but see them as independent and unrelated. At the highest level of integrative complexity, there is recognition of the trade–offs among perspectives and solutions."
(Anthony Lising Antonio and Kenji Hakuta, Stanford University)

Suedfeld, P., Tetlock, P., & Streufert, S. (1992). Conceptual/integrative complexity. In C.P. Smith (Ed.), Motivation and Personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

TAGS

conceptualisationconstellationscontingencydifferentiationdimensionenquiryintegrateintegration • integrative complexity • organisational psychology • perspectivepsychology

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
Sign-In

Sign-In to Folksonomy

Can't access your account?

New to Folksonomy?

Sign-Up or learn more.