"Otis College of Art and Design Teaching Tips: Reflective Writing with Parme Giuntini. The Liberal Arts and Sciences Faculty share their tips on a variety of classroom suggestions to improve the quality of teaching. and therefore learning."
(Otis College of Art and Design, California)
"One of the most prominent characteristics of modern society is the increasing number of students acquiring technology education. An important question that must be dealt with, regarding this phenomenon relates to the nature of an appropriate technology education. A thorough examination of prevalent trends indicates that cultivating analytical skills constitutes an essential feature of science education, while within the framework of technology education mainly synthetic skills are being cultivated. Analytical thinking deserves little attention in processes of teaching technology, and is not adequately stressed in processes of constructing design skills. Apparently it seems that the different curricula adopted in science and technology education emanates from the inherent differences between research methodologies in science as opposed to design in technology. Whereas analytical thinking is typically related to the scientific process, synthetic thinking manifested in planning, building and developing is an essential part of design processes. However, several stages requiring analytical thinking can be identified in the design process. These stages mainly characterize the initial process and include analyzing the task, the selection of an appropriate model, formalization, etc.
Technology is viewed, within the conceptual framework of our research, as a discipline based on two types of thinking: synthetic and analytical, occurring both in the realm of practice (in the real world) and the realm of theory (using symbolic representations of the real world). The hypothesis examined in this research relates to the desired interactions between the two types of thinking, as well as to the manner of their integration in processes of teaching and learning. We hypothesize that integrating the above mentioned types of thinking might enhance the efficiency of technology instruction."
(Ilja Levin, E. Lieberman)
Levin I, Lieberman E. (2000) 'Developing Analytical and Synthetic Thinking in Technology Education', Proceedings of International Conference on Technology Education, Braunshweig, Germany.
Fig.1 'Evolver' (2009) was designed and executed by a team of 2nd year students from the ALICE Studio at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland
"This activity involves an investigation which can be used to gain experience of a graph-drawing package and to reinforce and develop analytical and evaluation skills. Information is given about an experiment to measure the strength of electromagnets with different numbers of coils and using different numbers of cells to produce different currents.
Two students, Assief and Maria, were asked to investigate the factors that affect the strength of an electromagnet.
Look at these pictures of the items Assief and Maria could use. Draw a circuit diagram to show how you would assemble them to carry out this investigation."
(Espresso Education Ltd)
[An example of a teach guides provided by 'Channel 4 Learning' aimed at primary and secondary school children.]
"an important distinction that is employed by universities as well as corporate and governmental funding agencies. From the perspective of the type of problem addressed, research may be clinical, applied, or basic. ... Clinical research is, as the name suggests, directed toward an individual case. ... Clinical research focuses on the problem for action that the designer faces. To solve a particular, individual design problem, it is essential to gather whatever information or understanding may be relevant in its solution....applied research is directed towards problems that are discovered in a general class of products or situations. ... The common trait of applied research in design is the attempt to gather from many individual cases a hypothesis or several hypotheses that may explain how the design of a class of products takes place, the kind of reasoning that is effective in design for that class, and so forth. The third type of research is basic. It is research directed towards fundamental problems in understanding the principles-and sometimes the first principles-which govern and explain phenomena."
(Richard Buchanan, 2001)
 Buchanan, R. (2001). 'Design Research and the New Learning.' Design Issues 17(4, Autumn): 10, 17-18.