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Which clippings match 'Impartiality' keyword pg.1 of 1
22 APRIL 2011

Instant Runoff Voting is 'extremely difficult to manipulate'

"The most striking result is the difference between the manipulability of the Hare [IRV] system and the other systems. Because the [IRV] system considers only 'current' first preferences, it appears to be extremely difficult to manipulate. To be successful, a coalition must usually throw enough support to losing candidates to eliminate the sincere winner (the winner when no preferences are misrepresented) at an early stage, but still leave an agreed upon candidate with sufficient first–place strength to win. This turns out to be quite difficult to do."

(Chamberlin, Cohen and Coombs, 1984)

John R. Chamberlin, Jerry. L. Cohen and Clyde H. Coombs (1984). 'Social Choice Observed: Five Presidential Elections of the American Psychological Association.' The Journal of Politics 46(2): pp. 479–502.

Fig.1 Chair Judge Geraldine Sell, green sweater, sorted ballots with dozens of others during the first day of hand–counting in Minneapolis, Wednesday, Nov. 4, 2009. The hand–counting is required in Minneapolis because of the instant runoff voting process. (MPR Photo/Jeffrey Thompson)

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TAGS

advocacy • agenda manipulation • Alternative Votedemocracydemocratic participation • electoral candidate • fairnessimpartialityInstant Runoff VotingIRV • lawful • legitimate • Parliamentparticipationpolitical partiespoliticsprogressive political changereform our electoral systems • robust • Thomas Hare • unbiased • valid • voting system • winner

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 MARCH 2011

The camera's relation to reality is addressed directly by the documentary filmmaker

"The issue of the camera's relation to reality, which permeates the fiction film, is addressed directly by the documentary filmmaker, who has always aspired toward capturing the sight and sound of life in an unobtrusive and impartial manner. The ambivalent nature of the medium, which excludes the human element as an intermediary but nevertheless implies a subjective viewpoint, gives rise to issues concerning the camera's legitimacy to record the 'obscene' object of reality. Questions about what degrees of faithfulness to the truth establish a film as a documentary, and whether such faithfulness is even possible, have accompanied the history of documentary filmmaking since its origin.

In the meantime, partly due to the technological advancements, documentary underwent a revival, and experimentations with the new technology abounded. The answer of 'direct cinema', which included Richard Leacock, Donn A. Pennebaker and the Maysles brothers as its representatives, was a purist approach in which the impact of the observer on the observed had to be kept to a minimum. Interviews, voice–over commentary and any other forms of interaction with the subject matter were considered to contaminate the result of the observation. Others like, Pierre Perrault, used the new equipment to draw meaning from the seemingly insignificant and the quotidian, attempting to find greater meaning in and unity to the whole by observing and bringing together the small elements of everyday life."

(Barbara Bruni, Senses of Cinema)

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TAGS

ambivalence • Andre Bazinauthorial intrusion • Chronicle of a Summer • cinema veritecommentaryconstructed realitydirect cinemadocumentarydocumentary filmmakerdocumentary filmmakingdocumentary truthDonn A. Pennebaker • Edgar Morin • ethnographiceveryday lifeexperimentationfiction filmimpartiality • intermediary • interviewJean Rouch • Lightning Over Water • Maysles Brothersmedium • Nicholas Ray • observation • Pierre Perrault • realityRichard LeacockSenses of Cinema (journal)subjective viewpointtechnological advancements • The Human Pyramid • truth • unobtrusive • voice-over • voice-over commentary

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
28 MAY 2009

Putin Tightens Control over Internet

"Reuters has reported that this week President Vladimir Putin has signed a decree which will merge the state media oversight body Rosokhrankultura, with the federal telecommunications and IT watchdog, Rossvyaznadzor, which many believe represents an attempt to extent the Kremlin's strict media control to online sources, targeting bloggers and news websites. Both of these organizations have a history of harassing media outlets.

Under Putin's rule, independent publishers have mostly been taken over by Kremlin–friendly businessmen. The domestic media are under heavy pressure not to criticize the government, making journalists suspicious of any official initiative. "
(James on robertamsterdam.com, 16 March 2007)

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TAGS

authorshipbloggercontrolimpartialityindependent publishersInternetjournalism • media control • media publishingmonitoringregulation • Rosokhrankultura • Russia • Russian Federation • surveillancetelecommunicationsVladimir Putin

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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