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Which clippings match 'Beauty' keyword pg.1 of 2
02 SEPTEMBER 2014

Aesthetic disinterestedness: axiom of modern Western aesthetics

"The concept of aesthetic disinterestedness is surely one of the axioms of modern Western aesthetics, if not its central principle. Developed mainly in the eighteenth century in the writings of Alison, Shaftesbury, Addison, Hutcheson and others of the British school, the notion of disinterestedness denoted the perception of an object 'for its own sake.' This central idea became the mark of a new and distinctive mode of experience called the aesthetic, a kind of experience that was distinguished from more common modes, such as practical, cognitive, moral, and religious experience. During the same century many of these writers grouped what we now call the fine arts into a generally accepted set in which they were all organized by the same principles and could be compared with one another.[1] Finally, in the latter part of the century and especially in Germany, the general theory of the fine arts achieved the status of a separate discipline and, in the work of Kant, came to occupy a distinct and integral place in a philosophical system. Kant's formulation of disinterestedness is generally regarded as definitive:

'...[T]aste in the beautiful is alone a disinterested and free satisfaction; for no interest, either of sense or of reason, here forces our assent...Taste is the faculty of judging of an object or a method of representing it by an entirely disinterested satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The object of such satisfaction is called beautiful.'[2]

...What might we say is the historical significance of aesthetic disinterestedness? Disinterestedness served to identify intrinsic normative experience. As first developed it was used in a moral context to help the recognition of things and actions that were good in themselves, apart from their usefulness. Thus Shaftesbury, who, along with Hutcheson and Alison, was one of the principal contributors to this view, contrasted 'the disinterested love of God,' a love pursued for its own sake, with the more common motive of serving God 'for interest merely.' The disinterested love of God has, then, value that is entirely intrinsic.[3] When applied to the experience of beauty, it denoted the same recognition of intrinsic value. There is a valid insight here, for we often find ourselves valuing a work of art for its own sake. Somehow the value of good art seems to be self-contained. The work commands respect and admiration in itself, apart from practical considerations such as monetary value, the conferring of social status, or its association with the hand of genius."

(Arnold Berleant and Ronald Hepburn, Contemporary Aesthetics)

[1] Paul Oskar Kristeller, "The Modern System of the Arts," in Renaissance Thought II (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), pp. 163-227.

[2] Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgment (l790), Sect. 5. For an extended critical account see A. Berleant, "The Historicity of Aesthetics I," The British Journal of Aesthetics, Vol.26, No.2 (Spring 1986), 101-111; "The Historicity of Aesthetics II," The British Journal of Aesthetics, Vol.26, No.3 (Summer 1986), 195-203; and "Beyond Disinterestedness." The British Journal of Aesthetics, 34/3 (July 1994).

[3] Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury, Characteristics, ed. Robertson (London, 1900), II, 55, 56. The definitive discussion of this history is Jerome Stolnitz, "On the Origins of 'Aesthetic Disinterestedness'," The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, XX, 2 (Winter 1961), 131-143. The history of the idea of disinterestedness continues to be debated. See my Art and Engagement, Ch. 1, esp. n. 3, pp. 215-216.

TAGS

18th centuryaesthetic disinterestednessaesthetic experienceaesthetics • Anthony Ashley-Cooper • appreciative experience • Archibald Alison • Arnold Berleantart for arts sakebeauty • British school • cognitive experience • critique of human actions • Dabney Townsend • David Hume • disinterested love • disinterested satisfaction • disinterestedness • dissatisfaction • experience of beauty • fine arts • Francis Hutcheson • George Dickie • god • human creations • Immanuel Kant • intrinsic normative experience • intrinsic value • Jerome Stolnitz • John Locke • Joseph Addison • judgement • moral experience • Paul Oskar Kristeller • practical experience • religious experience • Remy Saisselin • Ronald Hepburn • taste • usefulness • Western aesthetics

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
27 JANUARY 2014

BEAUTY: animating Western romantic paintings

CREDITS: Director RINO STEFANO TAGLIAFIERRO Assistant Director LAILA SONSINO 2nd Assistant Director CARLOTTA BALESTRIERI Editing – Compositing – Animation RINO STEFANO TAGLIAFIERRO Sound Design ENRICO ASCOLI Art Direction RINO STEFANO TAGLIAFIERRO Historiographer GIULIANO CORTI.

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2D space • Adrien Henri Tanoux • Albert Bierstadt • Andrea Vaccaro • animated painting • Arnold Bocklin • art history • Asher Brown Durand • Augustin Theodule Ribot • beauty • Carlotta Balestrieri • Caspar David Friedrich • classical subjects • Claude Lorrain • Correggio • Elizabeth Jane Gardner Bouguereau • enliven • Enrico Ascoli • Enrique Simonet • Felice Boselli • figuration • figure painting • Franz von Stuck • Fritz Zuber-Buhle • Gabriel Cornelius von Max • Gabriel von Max • Gioacchino Pagliei • Giuliano Corti • Guido Reni • Guillaume Seignac • Gustave Dore • Herbert Draper • homage • Hugues Merle • Ilya Repin • interpretation • Ivan Shishkin • Jacques-Luois David • Jakub Schikaneder • James Sant • Jan Lievens • Jan van Huysum • Johannes VermeerJohn Everett Millais • John William Godward • Joseph Rebell • Jules Joseph Lefebvre • Laila Sonsino • living paintingliving pictures • Louis Jean Francois Lagrenee • Luca Giordano • Luis Ricardo Falero • Marcus Stone • Martin Johnson Heade • Martinus Rorbye • Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio • motion painting • movementmoving paintingpainting • Paul Delaroche • Paul Hippolyte Delaroche • Paul Peel • Peter Paul Rubens • Pierre Auguste Cot • Pieter ClaeszreenactmentRembrandt van Rijnremediation • Rino Stefano Tagliafierro • Roberto Ferri • salon painter • Sophie Gengembre Anderson • tableau vivanttableaux changeanttableaux mouvantsTheodore Gericault • Thomas Cole • Thomas Eakins • Thomas Hill • Tiziano • Victor Karlovich Shtemberg • William-Adolphe Bouguereau

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 DECEMBER 2013

How calculus is changing architecture

"So, working with Bentley and MicroStation, we've written a custom piece of software that networks all of the components together into these chunks of information, so that if we change any element along the length of the building, not only does that change distribute through each one of the trusses, but each one of the trusses then distributes that information down the length of the entire facade of the building. So it's a single calculation for every single component of the building that we're adding onto. So, it's tens of millions of calculations just to design one connection between a piece of structural steel and another piece of structural steel. But what it gives us is a harmonic and synthesized relationship of all these components, one to another.

This idea has, kind of, brought me into doing some product design, and it's because design firms that have connections to architects, like, I'm working with Vitra, which is a furniture company, and Alessi, which is a houseware company. They saw this actually solving a problem: this ability to differentiate components but keep them synthetic. So, not to pick on BMW, or to celebrate them, but take BMW as an example. They have to, in 2005, have a distinct identity for all their models of cars. So, the 300 series, or whatever their newest car is, the 100 series that's coming out, has to look like the 700 series, at the other end of their product line, so they need a distinct, coherent identity, which is BMW. At the same time, there's a person paying 30,000 dollars for a 300–series car, and a person paying 70,000 dollars for a 700 series, and that person paying more than double doesn't want their car to look too much like the bottom–of–the–market car. So they have to also discriminate between these products. So, as manufacturing starts to allow more design options, this problem gets exacerbated, of the whole and the parts."

(Greg Lynn, February 2005)

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2005abnormalityalgorithmalgorithmic architecture • Antonio Gaudi • architecture • beautiful architecture • beauty • Bentley Motors • BMW • bridge • bubble diagram • buildingcalculation • calculus • Chris Williams • Christopher Wren • computational aestheticscontinuous series • curvature • custom software • dais • digital fabricationdigital toolsdimensions • Frei Otto • furniture • generic form • genetic evolutiongothic • Greg Bateson • Greg Lynn • harmonic • houseware • human-scale understandingideal form • intricacies of scale • Mannheim Concert Hall • manufacturingmathematics • MicroStation • model of beauty • model of nature • modular architecture • monstrosity • mutation • natural form • Norman Foster • parabola • part-whole thinking • physiological development • product designproduct differentiationproportions • Robert Maillart • structural abstractionstructural forcesstructural formstructuresymmetrysynthesised relationship • teratology • vertebrae • Vitra • vocabulary of form • William Bateson

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
13 MARCH 2012

Jean Cocteau: la Belle et la Bête

"La lumière brillante et surnaturelle qui avait dominé toute la scène du château (flamme des chandeliers, feu, reflets étincelants de l'argenterie) s'estompe pour laisser la place à la lumière naturelle du jour [plan 9] [9]. Ces rayons lumineux rappellent ceux des dernières gravures de la Belle au vois dormant. D'autant plus que cette lumière naturelle n'est pas légitimée par la présence d'une fenêtre, comme c'est le cas chez Doré. C'est une lumière naturelle, la lumière du jour, mais elle semble toujours éclairer le personnage de manière surnaturelle : comment la lumière extérieure peut–elle pénétrer à l'intérieur sans la présence d'aucune fenêtre ? Les flambeaux s'éteignent un à un, le personnage traverse un grand pan de lumière blanche, la porte se referme toute seule, l'escalier apparaît en plongée : la scène semble se rejouer à l'envers, ce qui souligne la structure circulaire et la clôture de la séquence, mais aussi l'influence de l'œuvre de Gustave Doré. Le dialogue des contes et des illustrations se poursuit jusqu'à la dernière image de la séquence puisqu'elle se termine sur les ronces qui envahissent l'escalier du château de la Bête, comme celles qui envahissent les gravures du château de la Belle au bois dormant."

(Estelle Plaisant Soler, 26 juin 2006)

Fig.1 Jean Cocteau (1946). "la Belle et la Bête"

2). PDF of 100 Cult Films (Screen Guides).

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1946atmosphericbeastbeauty • candlebra • candlestick • caryatids • castlechandelierscostume design • daylight • eerie • enchanted garden • engraving • external light • externalisation • extinguished • fairy talefantasyfilmfilm designfireflameFrenchgloveGustave Dorehorse • iconogaphy • in the mindinterior spaceJean CocteauJean Marais • Josette Day • Jungian • key • La Belle et la Bete • light • living arms • Madame Leprince de Beaumont • magic • merchant • metaphormotion picturemyth • natural light • Prince Charmingrealityset design • silverware • Sleeping Beauty • smoke-breathing • sparkling reflections • spatial symbolismspecial effectsstaircasestory • supernatural • surrealismsymbolismtalismantheatrical space • torch • visual designvisual metaphorvisual spectacle • white light

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 APRIL 2011

The Aesthetic Movement: Art for Arts Sake

Exhibition: The Cult of Beauty: The Aesthetic Movement is at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London SW7 from 2 April to 17 July 2011.

"The movement started in a small way in the 1860s in the studios and houses of a radical group of artists and designers, including William Morris and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. These were angry young reformers who explored new ways of living in defiance of the horrendous design standards of the age as revealed in the 1851 Great Exhibition.

Over the next two decades aestheticism burgeoned, drawing in architects and craftworkers, poets, critics and philosophers to create a movement dedicated to pure beauty. The aesthetic movement stood in stark and sometimes shocking contrast to the crass materialism of Britain in the 19th century. "Art for art's sake" was its battle cry, a slogan that originated with the French poet Théophile Gautier."

(Fiona MacCarthy, 26 March 2011, The Guardian)

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1860s187719th centuryAesthetic Movementaestheticisationaestheticism • Albert Moore • angular aesthetic • architecture • art fabrics • art for arts sake • art furniture • art historyart movement • Arthur Liberty • Aubrey Beardsley • beautyceramic tile • Christopher Dresser • colour • Cult of Beauty (exhibition) • Dante RossettiDe Stijldecadencedecordecorationdecorative artsdepartment stores • design standards • eclectic mixEdward Burne-Jones • Edward William Godwin • excessexhibitionexoticfine art • Frederic Leighton • Frederick Leyland • frieze • furniture design • George Du Maurier • George Frederic Watts • Gerrit Rietveld • Green Dining Room (1865) • Grosvenor Gallery • interior decorationinterior designJames McNeill Whistler • Japonism • Kate Vaughan • Libertys (department store) • lifestyleLondon • Maurice Maeterlinck • Oscar Wildeoutlandish • painted panels • Patience (1881)peacockperformance art • provincial towns • Punch (cartoon) • pure beauty • Queen Anne style • radical art movement • sensuality • shabby chic • silliness • South Kensington Museum • spectacularstained glass • tenebrous house • The Great Exhibition (1851)The Guardian • Theophile Gautier • turquoise • Victoria and Albert MuseumVictorian artvisual style • Walter Crane • Walter Pater • western art • Whistlers Peacock Room • William Morris

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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