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Which clippings match 'Ethnography' keyword pg.1 of 3
03 MARCH 2015

Chapter 2: Doing Research in the Real World by David Gray



2009action research • analytical surveys • constructivismcritical enquiry • David Gray • deductive reasoning • descriptive studies • epistemological perspectives • epistemologyethnography • exploratory studies • feminismhermeneutics • heuristic enquiry • inductive and deductive reasoning • inductive reasoning • interpretive studies • interpretivismJohn DeweymethodologyMichael Crottymultiple methods • naturalistic enquiry • objectivism • ontological perspectives • ontology • phenomenological research • phenomenologypositivismpostmodernismpragmatismrealismresearch approachesresearch methodologiesresearch methodologyresearch methods • research perspectives • research strategiessubjectivismsymbolic interactionismtheoretical perspectives


Liam Birtles
28 MAY 2013

Discourse analysis: a transdisciplinary field for studying text and talk

"Discourse analysis emerged as a new transdisciplinary field of study between the mid–1960s and mid–1970s in such disciplines as anthropology, ethnography, microsociology, cognitive and social psychology, poetics, rhetoric, stylistics, linguistics, semiotics, and other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences interested in the systematic study of the structures, functions, and processing of text and talk"

(Teun Adrianus van Dijk, p.109)

Teun Adrianus van Dijk (2002). Media contents The Interdisciplinary study of news as discourse. "A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research". N. W. Jankowski and K. B. Jensen, Routledge.


anthropologycognitive psychologydiscourse analysisethnographyhandbookhumanities • Klaus Bruhn Jensen • linguisticsmass communication • mass communication research • microsociology • Nicholas Jankowski • Poeticsqualitative methodologiesresearchresearch methodsresearch resourcesrhetoricsemioticssocial psychologysocial sciencesstructures • stylistics • systematic study • talk • Teun Adrianus van Dijk • text and talk • textual analysis • transdisciplinary field


Simon Perkins
12 FEBRUARY 2013

Two examples of the ethnographic design approach are shadowing and self-observations

"Shadowing is an ethnographic technique to understand a person's real–time interactions with products, services or process and their shifting contexts and needs over the course of a day. Shadowing often focuses on particular events or tasks participants are willing to share. Talk Aloud and closure interviews are used to clarify questions.

Self–observations / Diaries is a method used when it is difficult or impossible to directly access a certain place (like people's homes) or access is too time consuming. It consists of asking people to provide self–observations about their activities in the form of log reports or diaries, for example. Although this method involves the subjectivity of the participants in the data collected, it can be valuable to get a glimpse of life through the eyes of the people that are being studied."



ehaviours • context of use • contextual observations • design ethnography • diaries • diaryethnographic design approachethnographic researchethnographyexperience design • faithful reporting • human behaviour • key social actors • natural environment • observation and participation • remote user research • research method • self-observations • shadowing • social science research • unarticulated motivations • user interviews • user researchvalues • video ethnography


Simon Perkins
19 JANUARY 2013

Hermeneutics: where meaning is inter-subjectively created

"Hermeneutic theory is a member of the social subjectivist paradigm where meaning is inter–subjectively created, in contrast to the empirical universe of assumed scientific realism (Berthon et al. 2002). Other approaches within this paradigm are social phenomenology and ethnography. As part of the interpretative research family, hermeneutics focuses on the significance that an aspect of reality takes on for the people under study. Hermeneutics focuses on defining shared linguistic meaning for a representation or symbol.

In order to reach shared understanding as proposed in hermeneutic theory, subjects must have access to shared linguistic and interpretative resources (Marshall et al. 2001). However, hermeneutic theory also posits that linguistic meaning is likely open to infinite interpretation and reinterpretation due to the interpretative ambiguity coming from presuppositions, to the conditions of usage different from authorial intention, and to the evolution of words (Marshall et al. 2001).

Due to its interpretive nature, hermeneutics cannot be approached using a pre–determined set of criteria that is applied in a mechanical fashion (Klein et al. 1999). However, a meta–principal [sic], known as the hermeneutic circle, guides the hermeneutic approach where the process of understanding moves from parts of a whole to a global understanding of the whole and back to individual parts in an iterative manner (Klein et al. 1999). This meta–principal allows the development of a complex whole of shared meanings between subjects, or between researchers and their subjects (Klein et al. 1999).

Other co–existing principles that may help assure rigorous interpretive analysis involve: a) understanding the subject according to its social and historical context, b) assessing the historical social construction between the researcher and the subject, c) relating ideographic details to general theoretical concepts through abstraction and generalization, d) being sensitive to potential pre–conceptual theoretical contradictions between research design and actual findings, e) being aware of possible multiple interpretations among participants for a given sequence of events, and f) being conscious of potential biases or systematic distortions in the subject's narratives (Klein et al. 1999)."

(IS Theory, 15 November 2011, Information Systems PhD Preparation Program of the Marriott School of Management of Brigham Young University)


abstraction and generalisation • biases • Brigham Young University • empirical universe • ethnography • evolution of words • global understanding • Heinz Klein • hermeneutic approach • hermeneutic circlehermeneutic theoryhermeneuticshermeneutische Spiralehermeneutischer Zirkel • historical social construction • ideographic details • infinite interpretation • inter-subjective • interpretation • interpretative ambiguity • interpretive nature • interpretive researchintersubjectivityiterative cycle • iterative manner • linguistic meaning • meaning • meta-principle • Michael Myers • multiple interpretations • Nick Marshall • phenomenology • pre-conceptual theoretical contradictions • presuppositions • realityreflexivityreinterpretation • rigorous interpretive analysis • scientific realism • shared interpretative resources • shared linguistic • shared linguistic meaning • shared meaningsshared understanding • social and historical context • social phenomenology • social subjectivism • social subjectivist paradigm • systematic distortions • theoretical concepts • theoretical contradictions • Tim Brady • understanding


Simon Perkins
06 JANUARY 2013

Hermeneutic Phenomenology and Phenomenology: A Comparison of Historical and Methodological Considerations

"a variety of research methodologies have grown in popularity including phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, and hermeneutic phenomenology (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000). As this has occurred, concern has risen about the use of qualitative methodologies without sufficient understanding of the rigor necessary to ethically utilize them (Maggs–Rapport, 2001). More specifically, phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology are often referred to interchangeably, without questioning any distinction between them. The purpose of this article is to discuss the early philosophical development of selected key issues related to phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology and support the position that differences and similarities exist. This exploration will begin with the phenomenology of Husserl and then move to explore heremeneutic phenomenology through Heidegger and Gadamer. Exploration will be given to how these different philosophical perspectives have an impact on the practice of phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology as research methodologies."

(Susann M. Laverty, 2003)

Laverty, S. M. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations". International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3). Article 3. Retrieved 06 January 2013 from


conducting researchEdmund Husserlepistemologyethnography • form and nature of reality • Frances Maggs-Rapport • grounded theoryHans-Georg Gadamer • hermeneutic phenomenology • hermeneuticsInternational Journal of Qualitative MethodsMartin HeideggermethodologyNorman Denzinontological perspectiveontologyphenomenology • philosophical development • philosophical perspectives • qualitative methodologiesresearch methodologiesrigourYvonna Lincoln


Simon Perkins

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