Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'Competition' keyword pg.1 of 3

Engaging learners through uncertain rewards

"Uncertainty may be an important component of the motivation provided by learning games, especially when associated with gaming rather than learning. Three studies are reported that explore the influence of gaming uncertainty on engagement with computer– based learning games. In the first study, children (10–11 years) played a simple maths quiz. Participants chose their preferred reward for a correct answer prior to seeing each question. They could either receive a single point or toss an animated coin to receive 2 points for heads or none for tails. A preference for the uncertain option was revealed and this increased during the quiz. The second study explored the discourse around learning when pairs of participants (13–14 years) competed against the computer in a science quiz. Progress depended on the acquisition of facts but also on the outcomes of throwing dice. Discourse was characterised by a close intermingling of learning and gaming talk without salient problematic constructions regarding fairness when losing points due to gaming uncertainty. A final experiment explored whether, in this type of game, the uncertainty provided by the gaming component could influence players' affective response to the learning component. Electrodermal activity (EDA) of 16 adults was measured while they played the quiz with and without the element of chance provided by the dice. Results showed EDA when answering questions was increased by inclusion of gaming uncertainty. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential benefits of combining gaming uncertainty with learning and directions for further research in this area are outlined."

(Howard–Jones, P. A. and S. Demetriou, 2009)

1). Howard–Jones, P. A. and S. Demetriou (2009). "Uncertainty and Engagement with Learning Games." Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences 37(6): 519–536.

2). Paul Howard–Jones, 2014, radio programme, BBC Radio 4 – The Educators, episode 5 of 8, first broadcast: 10 September 2014.



2009 • acquisition of facts • affective response • BBC Radio 4 • chance • chance outcome • coin toss • compelling engagement • competitioncomputer games • computer-based learning games • dopamine • educational neuroscience • educational psychologyeducational research • effective teaching • Electrodermal Activity (EDA) • fairnessgamblinggame-based learninggamificationgamifying learning and teaching • gaming uncertainty • learning and reward • learning and successlearning engagement • learning games • magnetic effect • memorymotivational needsneuroscience • neuroscience and education • our ability to learn • Paul Howard-Jones • prize • reward system • risk-taking • roulette wheel • running score • Skevi Demetriou • skill • sleep • The Educators (radio series) • throwing dice • transcranial electrical stimulation • uncertain options • uncertain rewards • uncertaintyvideo games


Christa Van Raalte
06 FEBRUARY 2013

European Commission: the Migrants in Europe design competition

The deadline for submitting artwork is 21 June 2013.

"The multimedia Competition 'Migrants in Europe' aims to give young artists and communicators an opportunity to reflect on the contribution of migrants to the European society today. The Competition should also serve as a first step towards more debate, information and opinion exchange.

The Competition is aimed at students who are over 18 years old and enrolled in art, graphic and communication schools in all EU countries and Croatia. The schools are to present the works in three categories–Poster, Photography and Video. Each school can present one or several works in one or several categories. The works will be judged at the national level and the best works will be forwarded to a European jury that will decide on European winners. A public internet vote will also take place on this website. The authors of the 30 European finalist works will travel to Brussels to attend a prize–giving ceremony with expected participation by Cecilia Malmström, European Commissioner for Home Affairs. The schools whose students win first prizes in the three categories and the first prize in the public vote will receive an award of €10,000 each."

(European Commission)



2013 • art and design competition • art and design students • Brussels • Cecilia Malmstrom • communication designcompetition • contribution of migrants • Croatiacultural changedesign competitionEUEuropean Commission • European jury • European society • graphic designimmigrantmigrant workers • Migrants in Europe • multimedia competition • photographyposter designposters • public vote • short video • visual artsyoung artists


Simon Perkins
14 JANUARY 2013

High Street music retailer HMV to appoint administrator

"Music and DVD chain HMV, which employs about 4,350 staff, has confirmed it will appoint an administrator, making it the latest High Street casualty. Deloitte will run the 239–store chain while it assesses prospects for the business and seeks potential buyers. Trading in HMV shares on the London Stock Exchange are being suspended, the company said in a statement. ... [Neil Saunders, the managing director of retail analyst firm Conlumin] said that although the HMV brand 'certainly has some value' for potential buyers, the current business model was dead. "The bottom line is that there is no real future for physical retail in the music sector," he said."

(BBC News, 14 January 2013)



19212013bricks and mortarbusiness into administrationbusiness modelclosurecompany liquidationcompetition • consumer downturn • debtDeloittedigital downloadsDVDeconomic recessionhigh streethigh street retailerhigh street shops • His Masters Voice • HMVincreasing competitioninsolvencyinternet retailersjob losses • London Stock Exchange • music chain • music downloading • music retailer • music sector • online retailer • online retailing • Oxford Streetphysical presencephysical retailphysical storeretailershopstore closuresstructural shifts in the sectorsupermarketssuspended tradingtradingUKunsustainableWaterstones


Simon Perkins
08 JUNE 2012

Generation 1992 Creative Competition

"1992 – 20 years ago: all countries belonging to the European Union decided to create a single market. This meant removing the obstacles blocking the free movement of goods, people, services and capital among them.

20 years on, we can travel across Europe without having to show our passports, work and live in another country without any difficulty, and find the best deals across Europe when shopping online. But we all agree that more work needs to be done in order to have a fully functioning European single market.

If you are 20 years old, we want to hear from you: your experiences, stories, complaints and proposals to make Europe a better place to live and work."

(Generation 1992)



1992 • 20 year old • 20 years • 20 years old • belongingcitizenshipcompetitioncountry • creative competition • engagementEurope • european competition • European single market • European Union • free movement • generation • generation 1992 • generation 92 • immigrationimmigration checksinternational travelmembership • obstacle • participationpassportpassport control • single market • society • work and live in another country


Simon Perkins
22 APRIL 2012

Cooperation and collaboration: problem solving and problem finding

"The economists Richard Lester and Michael Piore have studied the firms that sought to create the switching technology, finding that cooperation and collaboration within certain companies allowed them to make headway on the switching technology problem, whereas internal competition at other corporations diminished engineers' efforts to improve the quality of the switches. Motorola, a success story, developed what it called a 'technology shelf,' created by a small group of engineers, on which were placed possible technical solutions that other teams might use in the future; rather than trying to solve the problem outright, it developed tools whose immediate value was not clear. Nokia grappled with the problem in another collaborative way, creating an open–ended conversation among its engineers in which salespeople and designers were often included. The boundaries among business units in Nokia were deliberately ambiguous, because more than technical information was needed to get a feeling for the problem; lateral thinking was required. Lester and Piore describe the process of communication this entailed as 'fluid, context–dependent, undetermined.'[20]

By contrast, companies like Ericsson proceeded with more seeming clarity and discipline, dividing the problem into its parts. The birth of the new switch was intended to occur through 'the exchange of information' among offices 'rather than the cultivation of an interpretative community.'[21] Rigidly organized, Ericsson fell away. It did eventually solve the switching technology problem, but with greater difficulty; different offices protected their turf. In any organization, individuals or teams that compete and are rewarded for doing better than others will hoard information. In technology firms, hoarding information particularly disables good work.

The corporations that succeeded through cooperation shared with the Linux community that experimental mark of technological craftsmanship, the intimate, fluid join between problem solving and problem finding. Within the framework of competition, by contrast, clear standards of achievement and closure are needed to measure performance and to dole out rewards.

[20] Richard K. Lester and Michael J. Piore, Innovation, the Missing Dimension (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004), 98.

[21] Ibid., 104."

(Richard Sennett, 2008, pp.32–33)

1). Sennett, R. (2008). "The Craftsman". New Haven & London, Yale University Press.


2008boundaries • business units • clarity and discipline • closurecollaborationcommunicationcommunication processcompetitioncompetitive teams • context-dependent communication • cooperationcooperation and collaborationcorporationscraftsmanship • deliberately ambiguous • designers • dividing problems into parts • dole out rewards • engagementengineers • fluid communication • framework of competition • hoarding information • information exchangeinformation in context • internal competition • interpretative community • lateral thinkingLinux • Linux community • measure performance • Michael Piore • MotorolaNokia • open-ended conversation • participationperformanceperformativityproblem findingproblem solving and problem findingproblem-solvingreward • Richard Lester • Richard SennettsalespeopleshareSony Ericssonstandards of achievementsuccess • switching technology • technical information • technical solutions • technological craftsmanship • technology shelf • The Craftsman • undetermined communication • working methods


Simon Perkins

to Folksonomy

Can't access your account?

New to Folksonomy?

Sign-Up or learn more.