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Which clippings match 'Design Process' keyword pg.2 of 8
21 OCTOBER 2013

Design briefing for SMEs

"Design briefs are an essential part of the design process. In fact, they mark the beginning of the design process, helping designers understand the business problem they are required to solve and businesses clarify what they need from a design project."

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TAGS

businessbusiness analystbusiness consultant • business focused briefs • business problem • clear project objectivesdesign brief • design briefing • Design Council (UK)design processdesign projectdesign teamdomain expertexplicit objectivesexplicitly definedlingoPeter Phillipsproblem-oriented thinkingproblem-solvingproject definitionproject designproject goalsproject objectivesrequirements gathering • small and medium enterprise • small and medium-sized business • small company • SMB • SMETLAwriting a design brief

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 AUGUST 2013

Thinking aloud: a method for systematically collecting and analysing data about the design process

"Suppose that you want to understand the design process of architects, the knowledge that they use, the cognitive actions that they take and the strategies they employ. How would you go about this? One obvious possibility is to ask some architects how they design a building. Interestingly enough, they will not find this an easy question to answer. They are used to do their job, not to explain it. If they do try to tell you how they go about their design work, it is quite possible that their account of it will be incomplete or even incorrect, because they construct this account from memory. They may be inclined to describe the design process neatly in terms of the formal design methods that they acquired during their professional training, whereas the real design process deviates from these methods. Psychologists have demonstrated that such accounts are not very reliable. Another possibility is to look at the architects' designs and at their intermediate sketches. However, now you are looking at the products of the thought processes of these architects, and not at the thought processes themselves. What is needed are more direct data on the ongoing thinking processes during working on a design. If you want to know how they arrive at their designs, what they think, what is difficult for them and what is easy, how they reconcile conflicting demands, a different research method is needed.

A good method in this situation is to ask architects to work on a design and to instruct them to think aloud. What they say is recorded and used as data for analysis of the design process. This is a very direct method to gain insight in the knowledge and methods of human problem–solving. The speech and writings are called spoken and written protocols. In this book we will describe a method for systematically collecting and analysing such think aloud protocols. This method can be used by psychologists and other social scientists who want to know more about cognitive processes. It is also an important method for knowledge engineers whose goal is to build a knowledgebased computer system on the basis of human expertise."

(Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard, et al., 1994, pp.1–2)

Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard and Jacobijn A.C. Sandberg. (1994). "The Think Aloud Method: A Practical Guide to Modelling Cognitive Processes".

TAGS

academic researchanalysing dataarchitectural thoughtcognitive actionscognitive processescognitive psychologycognitive sciencecognitive theoriesconceptual modeldata collection and analysisdata collection techniquesdesign knowledgedesign process • design strategies • design workdirect observationexperimental knowledgeformal design methods • human expertise • knowledge engineer • knowledge-based systems • problem-solvingpsychological analysispsychological modelsresearch methodsketching ideas • social scientists • spoken protocols • task analysis • testing theories • theoretical model • think aloud (research method) • think aloud protocols • thinking processthought process • unreliable evidence • user testinguser-based evaluation • written protocols

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 JANUARY 2013

Concurrent Engineering versus Sequential Engineering

"Sequential engineering, also known as serial engineering, is characterized by downstream departments supplying information to design only after a product has already been designed, verified and prototyped [1], in order to change what design engineering did wrong, or what could have been improved. In serial engineering, the various functions such as design, manufacturing, and customer service are separated. The information in serial engineering flows in succession from phase to phase. For example, the prototype model, verified by either simulation or prototyping or both, is reviewed for manufacturing, quality and service. Usually, some changes are suggested after the review. If the suggested changes in the design are made, there are increases in the cost and time to develop the product, resulting in delays in marketing the product. If the changes cannot be made because of market pressure to launch the product quickly, or the fact that the design is already behind schedule, then specialists in other functional areas or managers from manufacturing, quality, and service, among others, are informed of the impending problems. In sequential engineering a department starts working only when the preceding one has finished, and, once a department has finished working on a project, or part of a project, this is not planned to come back: information flow is only one way.

On the contrary, in CE all functional areas are integrated within the design process. In this case information continuously flows back and forth among all functions. During the design process CE draws on various disciplines to trade-off parameters such as manufacturability, testability and serviceability, along with customer performance, size, weight, and cost [1-2]. The decision making process in a CE environment differs from sequential engineering in that at every stage decisions are taken considering the constraints and the objectives of all stages of the product life cycle, thus taking at the product design level issues that are usually addressed much later, thus giving the possibility to achieve a better overall solution [2,3]. The integration of other functional areas within the design process helps to discover hard to solve problems at the design stage. Thus, when the final design is verified, it is already manufacturable, testable, serviceable, and of high quality. The most distinguishing feature of CE is the multidisciplinary, cross-functional team approach. Product development costs range between 5% and 15% of total costs, but decisions taken at this stage affect 60–95% of total costs [4]. Therefore it is at the product development stage that the most relevant savings can be achieved."

(Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu, 2011)

Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu (2011). "Different Approaches to Concurrent Engineering"

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TAGS

competitive capabilities • concurrent engineering (CE)cross-functional design teams • cross-functional team approach • decision making process • design engineeringdesign processdevelopment life cycle • downstream • engineering and manufacturing • functional areas • manufacturability • manufacturable • manufacturingmultidisciplinary teams • new product development • over-the-wall design processover-the-wall engineering • overall solution • product development • product development methods • product development stage • product-lifecycle • sequential engineering (SE) • sequential stages • serial engineering • serial prototyping • serviceability • serviceable • silos • successive phases • testability • testable

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
17 DECEMBER 2012

Invention is the result of creative experimentation and synthesis

"Why waste time on expensive experiments when the right answer is obvious? The flaw in this thinking is that creativity is an iterative process in which you synthesize the final result from a variety of sources and thousands of potential solutions. It is not purely a deductive process with a single right answer.

When you fail to experiment broadly, you are building your solution from an anemic set of mental and technical resources. It is the equivalent of trying to design a bridge when the only material you've tested is paper. You can certainly build a bridge, but it will not be nearly as good compared to someone who experimented with a broad range of materials and construction techniques including steel or concrete."

(Daniel Cook, 16 August 2010)

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TAGS

ild a bridge • conceptualisationconstruction techniquescreative processcreativity • design a bridge • design methoddesign process • experiment broadly • experimental enquiryexperimental investigation • experimental research • experimental techniquesexperimental thinkingexperimental workexperimentation • experiments • inventioniterative cycleiterative design processmethods for design practice • potential solutions • right answer • single right answer • synthesise knowledgetestingtheory building • variety of sources • visualising the creative process

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
19 SEPTEMBER 2012

Design Thinking: DesignLab's 2-day Workshop in Kuala Lumpur

"DesignLab© is a 2 days Design Thinking workshop that introduces professionals from multi–disciplined industries to work as a collective to create solutions using design process. Participant will be able to adopt a system and use it repetitively in solving the most complex challenges by understanding the process that is involved.

With today's global economy, design thinking does not only allow us to be individually innovative, but also appreciation the collaborative spirit of eclectic ideas, better team building to produce solutions that are unique and creative.

In this DesignLab©, Granma Inc from Japan will be collaborating with us by providing real world issues and the selected project from Designlab© will be chosen as a part of solution provided at places most underserved on our planet. Some of the countries Granma Inc are involved are in rural spaces of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Bangladash (sic) and other developing nations. With the collaboration, participants will be able to experience the importance of Design Thinking as an important innovation tool in their lives and others."

(Thinklab, 2012)

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TAGS

2012Bangladesh • collaborative spirit • create solutions • creating unique solutions • creative industries • creative solutions • creative think tank • design processdesign thinkingdeveloping nations • eclectic ideas • Granma Inc • Indiainnovation and creativityinnovation processinnovation seminarsinterdisciplinaryJapanKuala Lumpur • Make Condition Design (agency) • MalaysiamultidisciplinarityMyanmar • real world issues • real-world designrural spaces • solving complex challenges • Sri Lanka • team-building • working as a collective • workshop

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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