"This paper argues that learning outcomes need to be reclaimed from their current use as devices for monitoring and audit, and returned to their proper use in aiding good teaching and learning. We require a broader, flexible and more realistic understanding of learning outcomes, better suited to the realities of the classroom and of practical use to those teachers who wish to respond to the enthusiasm of their students. To this end, a new model is produced that starts from the idea of an articulated curriculum, and embraces both intended and emergent learning outcomes. The model employs the distinction between predicted and unpredicted learning outcomes, together with the distinction between those that are desirable and those that are undesirable. The resulting account is intended to aid understanding of the nature and proper use of learning outcomes in teaching and learning."
(Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith, p.357, 2003)
Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith (2003). "The Uses of Learning Outcomes", Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2003, pp.357–368, ISSN 1356–2517 (print)/ISSN 1470–1294 (online)/03/030357–12, 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd., DOI: 10.1080/1356251032000088574
"Icograda is the world body for professional communication design. It is a non–profit, non–partisan, member–based network of independent organisations and stakeholders working within the multidisciplinary scope of communication design and expanded media. Founded in 1963, Icograda actively promotes the value of design practice, thinking, education, research and policy, representing more than 200 organisations in 67 countries and regions globally.
As a partner of the International Design Alliance (IDA), Icograda's members believe in interdisciplinary collaboration and the effectiveness of a collective voice to represent the design industry."
"The use of technology to support learning and teaching has changed dramatically in recent years.
Most institutions are now exploring the possibilities of e–learning and many have implemented VLEs or virtual learning environments. These tools offer great possibilities but they need to be used effectively if they are to deliver maximum benefit for students.
This infoKit takes you from the theoretical frameworks underpinning good teaching to the practice of e–learning. We consider how technology affects the roles of learner and teacher in a number of real–life scenarios. The infoKit is based on sound pedagogic approaches and draws on case studies of good practice across the UK.
Whether you are new to e–learning or an experienced practitioner there are pathways to guide you through the relevant sections of the infoKit. The infoKit will continue to grow and expand as the knowledge base develops and we welcome your participation in its further development."
(2011 Northumbria University, on behalf of JISC Advance)
"Unistats lets you search, review and compare official information about universities and colleges in the UK, and the subjects they offer. It includes results from the National Student Survey–where more than 220,000 students give their views about the quality of their higher education experience. ...
HEFCE (the Higher Education Funding Council for England)¹ owns the Unistats websites and has contracted UCAS to manage the delivery and maintenance of these websites on its behalf."
"Design thinking is ... a discipline that uses the designer's sensibility and methods to match people's needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value and market opportunity. Like [Thomas] Edison's painstaking innovation process, it often entails a great deal of perspiration. ...
Historically, design has been treated as a downstream step in the development process – the point where designers, who have played no earlier role in the substantive work of innovation, come along and put a beautiful wrapper around the idea. To be sure, this approach has stimulated market growth in many areas by making new products and technologies aesthetically attractive and therefore more desirable to consumers or by enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising and communication strategies. During the latter half of the twentieth century design became an increasingly valuable competitive asset in, for example, the consumer electronics, automotive, and consumer packaged goods industries. But in most others it remained a late–stage add–on.
Now, however, rather than asking designers to make an already developed idea more attractive to consumers, companies are asking them to create ideas that better meet consumers' needs and desires. The former role is tactical, and results in limited value creation; the latter is strategic, and leads to dramatic new forms of value."
(Tim Brown, 2008, Harvard Business Review)