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Which clippings match 'Verisimilitude' keyword pg.1 of 1
29 NOVEMBER 2012

Psychical Distance: characters and situations in drama are unreal

"One of the best known examples is to be found in our attitude towards the events and characters of the drama; they appeal to us like persons and incidents of normal experience, except that that side of their appeal, which would usually affect us in a directly personal manner, is held in abeyance. This difference, so well known as to be almost trivial, is generally explained by reference to the knowledge that the characters and situations are 'unreal,' imaginary. In this sense Witasek, oeprating with Meinong's theory of Annahem, has described the emotions involved in witnessing a drama as Scheingefuhle, a term which has so frequently been misunderstood in discussions of his theories. But, as a matter of fact, the 'assumption' upon which the imaginative emotional reaction is based is not necessarily the condition, but often the consequence, of distance; that is to say, the converse of the reason usually stated would then be true: viz. That distance, by changing our relation to the characters, renders them seemingly fictitious, not that the fictitiousness of the characters alters our feelings toward them. It is, of course, to be granted that the actual and admitted unreality of the dramatic action reinforces the effect of Distance. But surely the proverbial unsophisticated yokel whose chivalrous interference in the play on behalf of the hapless heroine can only be prevented by impressing upon him that 'they are only pretending,' is not the ideal type of theatrical audience. The proof of the seeming paradox that it is Distance which primarily gives to dramatic action the appearance of unreliability and not vice versa, is the observation that the same filtration of our sentiments and the same seeming 'unreality' of actual men and things occur, when at times, by a sudden change of inward perspective, we are overcome by the feeling that 'all the world's a stage.'"

(Edward Bullough, 1912)

Edward Bullough (1912). "Psychical Distance" British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 5, pp. 87–117 (excerpt cited by Julie Van Camp, 22 November 2006).

Fig.1 Patricia Piccinini/Drome Pty Ltd. (2010) []



1912aesthetics • Alexius Meinong • all the worlds a stage • Annahem • appeal • appearance of unreliability • audiencebelievabilitybreaking the fourth wallchanging our relationcharactersdirect experience • distance • distanced viewpointdrama • dramatic action • dramatic space • Edward Bullough • emotionemotional immersionemotional involvementempathyfeelings • fictitious • fictitiousnessheld in abeyanceimaginary • imaginative emotional reaction • normal experience • only pretending • our sentiments • pathospersonalpropinquitypsychical distancepsychological closeness • psychological proximity • Scheingefuhle • Stephan Witasek • suspension of disbelief • theatrical audience • unreal • unreal characters • unreal situations • unreality • verisimilitude • witnessing • yoke


Simon Perkins
11 APRIL 2012

Towards a Performative Aesthetics of Interactivity

"I identify a two–decade period – roughly speaking 1985–2005 – as the pioneering experimental period of (computer based) interactive art. Crucial to the understanding of work in this period is the blindingly rapid development of the technological context. At the beginning of the period the graphical user interface was a novelty, the internet barely existed, the web was a decade away, interactivity was an intriguing concept. The production of acceptably high resolution illusionistic digital pictures (still frames) was an active research area and a megabyte of RAM was something luxurious.

The period neatly brackets the emergence of most of the major technological milestones which now undergird digital culture and ubiquitous computing: WYSIWYG, digital multimedia, hypermedia, virtual reality, the internet, the world wide web, digital video, real–time graphics, digital 3D, mobile telephony, GPS, Bluetooth and other mobile and wireless communication systems. It was a period of rapid technological change, euphoria and hype."

(Simon Penny, 2011)

Simon Penny (2011). "Towards a Performative Aesthetics of Interactivity", Fibreculture Journal, issue 19 2011: Ubiquity.

Fig.1 Sniff and Performative Ecologies were included in Emergence, a show of Artificial Life Art curated by Simon Penny and David Familian at the Beall Center for Art and Technology, University of California Irvine, December 2009–April 2010. Regrettably Performative Ecologies did not function as designed during the exhibition.



19852005academic journal • artificial life art • bluetoothcomputer based interactive artconvergencecross-disciplinarydesign historydesign researcherdigital 3Ddigital culturedigital multimediadigital videofibrecultureFibreculture JournalGPSgraphical user interfacehistory • honeymoon period • hypermedia • illusionistic digital pictures • interactive artinteractivityInternetmedia art • megabyte • mobile and wireless communication systems • mobile telephony • multimedianew medianovelty • performative ecologies • pioneering experimental period • RAM • rapid development • rapid technological changereal-time graphics • Simon Penny • speculative designtechnological changetechnological context • technological milestones • timelineubiquitous computingverisimilitudevirtual realityvisualisationweb designworld wide webWYSIWYG


Simon Perkins
31 DECEMBER 2003

Natural History: Mimesis

"But something very important transpires at the level of relationships. For natural history conceives of the relationships between animals in two ways: series and structure. In the case of a series, I say a resembles b, b resembles c, etc.; all of these terms conform in varying degrees to a single, eminent term, perfection, or quality as the principle behind the series. This is exactly what the theologians used to call an analogy of proportion. In the case of a structure, I say a is to b as c is to d; and each of these relationships realizes after its fashion the perfection under consideration: gills are to breathing under water as lungs are to breathing air; or the heart is to gills as the absence of a heart is to tracheas [in insects] ... This is an analogy of pro–portionality. In the first case, I have resemblances that differ from one another in a single series, and between series. In the second case, I have differences that resemble each other within a single structure, and between structures. The first form of analogy passes for the most sensible and popu–lar, and requires imagination; but the kind of imagination it requires is a studious one that has to take branchings in the series into account, fill in apparent ruptures, ward off false resemblances and graduate the true ones, and take both progressions and regressions or degraduations into account. The second form of analogy is considered royal because it requires instead all the resources of understanding (entendement), in order to define equiv–alent relations by discovering, on the one hand, the independent variables that can be combined to form a structure and, on the other hand, the corre–lates that entail one another within each structure. As different as they are, the two themes of series and structure have always coexisted in natural his–tory; in appearance contradictory, in practice they have reached a more or less stable compromise. l In the same way, the two figures of analogy coex–isted in the minds of the theologians in various equilibriums. This is because in both cases Nature is conceived as an enormous mimesis: either in the form of a chain of beings perpetually imitating one another, progressively and regressively, and tending toward the divine higher term they all imitate by graduated resemblance, as the model for and principle behind the series; or in the form of a mirror Imitation with nothing left to imitate because it itself is the model everything else imitates, this time by ordered difference. (This mimetic or mimological vision is what made the idea of an evolution–production possible at that moment.)"
(Deleuze and Guattari, p.234–35)

Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari 2002. 'A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia', London, UK: Continuum.

1). Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari: Chapter 10. 1730: Becoming–Intense, Becoming–Animal, Becoming–Imperceptible


analogydegradation • entende • equilibriumimitationmimesis • mimological • mirrornatural historynature • ordered • progressionregressionrelationship • resemble • structuretheologianverisimilitude

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