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06 OCTOBER 2013

Modern medicine evokes a Cartesian mind-body dualism

"If we look at the history of medicine, we can see that it became what it is today because of a sweeping social transformation that modernized Europe centuries ago. Urbanization and commerce, along with Protestantism and the Catholic Counter–Reformation, encouraged new ways of conceiving and interacting with nature. It was within this context that 'scientific medicine' was invented and elaborated. The particular scientific model that became predominant in Europe in the seventeenth century accepted the mind–body dualism of René Descartes, for whom the human body is a self–contained, entirely material machine. His contemporary, Baruch Spinoza, on the other hand, elaborated a more relational view, stemming from a Jewish tradition that regards the body as essential to a complex and ultimately spiritual being, and all beings as mutually dependent.

Spinoza's perspective is no less compatible with scientific medicine than the Cartesian view. For science has two complementary ways of explaining: by taking apart–as atomic physics mainly does–and by bringing into relation–as Einstein's relativity theory does. Spinoza was quite aware of the power of the first approach, as elaborated by Descartes and advanced by technologies such as the newly invented microscope. Spinoza acknowledges that the human body is composed of parts, and those parts of smaller parts still. But he recognizes also that bodies are encompassed by, and can be adequately understood only in relation to, unities larger than themselves, until we reach the widest system of all, which is 'the whole of nature.' Spinoza was an early exponent of what is known today as 'systems theory.'

Medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries could have taken a more integrative path, in keeping with Spinoza's insight that we are guardians not only of our bodies, taken individually, but of the entire domain of nature with which they are continuous. Instead–for reasons that this essay will explore – mainstream medicine adopted the Cartesian machine model."

(Raymond Barglow, Tikkun Magazine, March 2002)

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TAGS

16th century17th centuryAlbert Einstein • atomic physics • atomisticBaruch Spinozabodybringing into relation • Cartesian machine model • Cartesian view • Catholiccomplexitycomposed of partscontingencydualismhealth carehistory of medicinehuman bodyintegrative practices • Jewish tradition • Judaism • mainstream medicine • man and nature • material machine • medicinemicroscopemind-body dualismnatureProtestantismrelational aestheticsrelational viewRene Descartessciencescientific medicine • scientific model • self-contained • social transformation • spiritual being • systems theorytaking apart • theory of relativity • urbansation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 JANUARY 2012

Dot. miniature stop-motion animation character shot on a Nokia N8

"Professor Fletcher's invention of the CellScope, which is a Nokia device with a microscope attachment, was the inspiration for a teeny–tiny film created by Sumo Science at Aardman. It stars a 9mm girl called Dot as she struggles through a microscopic world. All the minuscule detail was shot using CellScope technology and a Nokia N8, with its 12 megapixel camera and Carl Zeiss optics."

(Nokia)

TAGS

12 megapixel camera • 2010 • 9mm girl • Aardman • Aardman Animations • adadvertanimationcameraphone • Carl Zeiss • CellScope • Daniel Fletcher • devicedigital camera • Dot (character) • microscope • microscope attachment • microscopic worldminiatureminuscule detailmobile microscopeNokia • Nokia N8 • scalestop framestop motionstop-frame animation • Sumo Science • teeny-tiny film • visual design

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
23 JANUARY 2009

Mobile phones redeployed as mobile microscopes in the fight against malaria

"A research team at UC Berkeley is developing a technology that will enable anyone, anywhere in the world, to diagnose malaria with just a cell phone and a special microscope.

The cell phone microscope, called a CellScope, is designed to uncouple the need for a physician to be in the same place as a patient, allowing those who lack the benefits of health care to be properly diagnosed. A diagnosis is performed by putting a slide containing a blood or tissue sample on the Cell Scope. A ring of bright LEDs illuminates the sample, and if faint blue dots appear, the patient is positive for malaria. The image can then be transmitted to medical experts for analysis and recommendations."
(Wired.com, 19 May 2008)

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TAGS

cameraphoneCellScopediagnosisdigital cameradigital health solutionIndia • m-health • malaria • medical devicemHealthmicroscopemobilemobile healthmobile microscope • tele diagnosis • teledermatology

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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