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22 JULY 2014

Substance Dualism, Property Dualism and Mind-Body Dualism

"Consider the following three Cartesian theses:

Substance dualism: Any substance with mental properties lacks material properties and any substance with material properties lacks mental properties.

Property dualism: Mental properties and material properties are different properties.

Real distinction between mind and body: The mind and the body are numerically distinct substances.

How are these theses logically related? Substance dualism is the strongest of the three, and entails the other two. It entails the real distinction between mind and body. For the mind is a substance with mental properties, and the body is a substance with material properties. Now if the mind lacks material properties, and the body lacks mental properties, then the mind and the body cannot be the same substance. But the real distinction between mind and body does not entail substance dualism. For that mind and body are two numerically distinct substances is compatible with both of them having both mental and material properties.

Substance dualism also entails property dualism. For if a substance with mental properties lacks material properties, then mental and material properties are different properties–otherwise, a substance with mental properties would be a substance with material properties. But property dualism does not entail substance dualism. It could be that mental properties and material properties are different properties and yet a substance with mental properties is also a substance with material properties.

But the real distinction between mind and body and property dualism do not entail each other. It could be that mind and body are numerically distinct substances but mental and material properties are the same. For instance, it could be that mind and body are distinct because they have different properties: the mind has a property M that the body lacks, and the body has a property B that the mind lacks. This does not preclude that both M and B are both mental and material properties. So the real distinction between mind and body does not entail property dualism. Nor does property dualism entail the real distinction between mind and body. For even if mental and material properties are different properties, it can still be the case that the mind, which has mental properties, and the body, which has material properties, are the same substance."

(Gonzalo Rodriguez–Pereyra, pp.70–71)

Rodriguez–Pereyra, G. (2008). "Descartes's Substance Dualism and His Independence Conception of Substance". Journal of the History of Philosophy 46(1): 69–90.
Fig.1 Lucy Jones "Philosophy of the Mind Episode Two: Criticisms of Substance Dualism", YouTube.

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TAGS

bodyCartesian dualismcognitionconsciousnessdefining features of modernitydifferentiationdistinctionsdualism • epiphenomenalism • Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra • introspectionlogical-analytical paradigmmaterial environmentmaterial object • material properties • material realitymaterial space • material substances • material thinkingmaterial world • mental properties • mental substance • mindmind-body dualism • mind-body problem • minds divorced of bodiesobjective knowledgeobjective realityobjectivity • other minds • parallelism • philosophical position • philosophy of mind • physical worldproperties of nature • property dualism • realm of existenceRene Descartesscientifically established objective facts • separability argument • separate thinking • solipsism • soul • subject-object orientated philosophy • subjectificationsubjective conditionsubjectivismsubjectivity • substance dualism

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 MARCH 2012

The Gestalt Principles

"Gestalt is a psychology term which means 'unified whole'. It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied."

(Spokane Falls Community College)

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TAGS

abstractionaesthetics • Berlin School • brain • closeness • closurecognitioncomplete formdesigndesign formalismdesign principlesdesign rules • entirety • essence • figure and ground • form and function • form-generating capability • gestalt effect • gestalt principlesgestalt psychology • gestalt theories • gestalt theories of perceptiongestalt theory • gestaltism • graphic designgrouping • human eye • illusion • Kurt Koffka • layout designmodernismmodernist design principlesobjectivityperceptionperceptual organisationpictorial systemsprinciplesproximitypsychology • psychology of design • regularity • reificationrepetitionrulessensesshapesimilaritysymmetrytexturetheory of mindunified wholevisual communicationvisual designvisual illusionvisual literacyvisual perceptionvisual recognitionvisual rulewhole formswhole is greater than the sum of the partswhole is other than the sum of the partswhole situation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 FEBRUARY 2011

Cognitive Constructivist Theory

Jean "Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be 'given' information which they immediately understand and use. Instead, humans must 'construct' their own knowledge. They build their knowledge through experience. Experiences enable them to create schemas – mental models in their heads. These schemas are changed, enlarged, and made more sophisticated through two complimentary processes: assimilation and accommodation."

(Irene Chen)

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TAGS

accommodation • assimilationcognitioncognitive constructivism • cognitive development • experienceinformationJean Piagetknowledgelearningmental modelspedagogy • schemas • theoryunderstanding

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 DECEMBER 2008

The Functional Role of Eidetic Imagery in Industrial Design

"Visual imagery is used frequently in most design processes. Eidetic imagery, related to the power of visualization of objects previously seen or imagened, is one of the visual imageries. In this study, we tried to find 'eidetikers' (persons who possess this eidetic power) in students who majored in industrial design. 114 university students answered the questionnaire about image used in daily life, 15 of 114 participated in 'eidetic imagery test'. The test identified 4 of the 15 students as 'eidetikers'. They reported some eidetic images in this test. In the interview after the test, they reported that they had tendency to be occupied in imagination in their daily lives, and were favour of drawing pictures in comparison with a noneidetic person. Principal component analysis of the questionnaire data also suggests that a person's imagination in daily life generally indicates whether he/she is eidetic or not. Finally this study indicates that, in the industrial design course, there are many students who have had eidetic–like experiences in the past."

(Shimada Kumi & Masuyama Eitaro, Takushoku University)

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TAGS

analysiscognitionconceptualisationdesign thinkingdrawing • eidetic • eidetiker • enquiryimaginationindustrial designJapanmemoryperceptionproduct designpsychologyquestionnaireresearchscience • Takushoku University • theory buildingvisual literacy

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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