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Which clippings match 'Ad-hoc' keyword pg.1 of 5
16 NOVEMBER 2014

The school which encourages risk-taking through open-ended play

"It sounds like a child's dream and a parent's nightmare – a school with no rules. But at Swanson School in Auckland, New Zealand, a blind eye is turned at break time while the kids run amok outside. Dani Isdale joins the children as they climb trees, skid around on bikes and fire makeshift weapons – it's all allowed and even encouraged.

'The need to wrap up our kids in cotton wool and not give them an opportunity to hurt themselves – you are actually taking away a lot of learning opportunities,' says principal Bruce McLachlan. When playtime ends, serious learning begins and he says the children are much more receptive, confident and cooperative after their 'free range' play. But he does admit to Dani that there is just one rule – the kids aren't allowed to kill each other. They love it, but do parents think he's gone too far?"

(Dani Isdale, 21 October 2014, SBS Dateline)

[Bruce McLachlan, the principal of Swanson School in Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand believes that 'wrapping children in cotton wool' is more risky in the long–term than giving them the freedom to set their own rules in the playground]

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Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) • ad-hocagency of access and engagementanarchic freedomAotearoa New ZealandAuckland • breaktime • Bruce McLachlan • climbing trees • cobbled togetherexploration of unfolding possibilitiesexposure to riskfree range play • Grant Schofield • health and safety cultureimpromptu playimprovisationjerry-builtjunk playgroundlearning by doingmake-do playgroundsmakeshift • makeshift weapons • no rules • open spacesopen-ended play spacesparticipatory processpersonal responsibilityplace for childrenplay spacesplayscapesplaytimerisk-taking • SBS • SBS Dateline • school principal • scriptible spacessmooth phenomenal spacesocial constructionismspaces for children • Swanson School • turning a blind eye • universal no-fault personal accident injury scheme • wrapping children in cotton woo

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 NOVEMBER 2013

Confiscation Cabinets: an exhibition of confiscated childhood objects

"Artist Guy Tarrant's display cabinets show artefacts gleaned from 150 different London primary and secondary schools over three decades. These objects include homemade games, keepsakes, cult toys, peculiar adornments, weapons and other forbidden objects which characterise the flotsam and jetsam of contemporary school children.

Since qualifying as a teacher, Guy Tarrant has investigated pupil interaction, play and resistant behaviour. The objects in the cabinets highlight mischievous and distracted behaviour played out in the controlled school setting where children spend much of their time. These confiscated items are evidence of the pupils' playful and impulsive activities and how they may reject or evade rules."

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ad-hoc • adornments • artefactsauthoritychildhood imagination • confiscated items • Confiscation Cabinets • confiscation drawer • controlcontrolled environments • cult toys • cultural significance of objectsdiscipline and punishmentdistracting attentiondistracting behaviourDIYfad • flotsam and jetsam • forbidden objects • Guy Tarrant • homemade bombs • homemade gamesimprovisation • impulsive activities • intriguing objects • keepsake • makeshiftmaterial culturemischievous behaviour • Museum of Childhood • personal cultural production • personal objects • plastic toysplayful activitiesprimary schoolpunishmentregulationresistant behaviourrulesschool children • school setting • secondary schoolsocial interactionsubversive actionssymbolic controltoy • toy guns • V and Aweapons

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 APRIL 2013

A history of play equipment design (by theme and by designer)

"Spielplätze sind relevante Orte in der Stadt. Diese Erkenntnis hat in der Zeit zwischen 1945 bis ca. 1970 ein kleine Zahl von Architekten, Landschaftsarchitekten und Künstlern zu neuen Spielkonzepten inspiriert. Die Seite architekturfuerkinder dokumentiert diese Pioniere und ihre Spielplätze und Spielgeräte, weil ihr Ideenreichtum, Zivilcourage, geistige Freiheit und Frechheit faszinieren."

(Gabriela Burkhalter)

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20th centuryad-hocadventure playgroundagencyAldo van EyckAlfred Trachsel • Angel Duarte • Ant Farm (architecture) • architecture for children • Arvid Bengtsson • Bernhard Luginbuhl • Cornelia Hahn Oberlander • Creative Playthings Inc • Egon Moller-Nielsen • Ernst Cramer • experience designexploration of unfolding possibilitiesexploratory experimentation • history of playgrounds • imaginationimpromptu playimprovisationIsamu Noguchi • Jacques Sgard • Jacques Simon • Joseph Brown • jungle gymKuro KanekoLady Allen of Hurtwoodlandscape architecturelandscape designLe Corbusiermake-do playgrounds • Mary Mitchell • Michael Grossert • Mitsuru Senda • NIDO • Niki de Saint Phalle • open-ended play spaces • Palle Nielsen • Paul FriedbergPaul Hoganplace for children • play environments • play spacesplayground • playground equipment • playground spacesplayscapes • Richard Arioli • Richard Dattner • Robert Royston • scriptible spaces • Soren Carl Theodor Marius Sørensen • The Ludic Group

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 APRIL 2013

The Imagination of Playgrounds

"The following images begin with make–do playgrounds (as in the photographs by Helen Levitt, Henri Cartier–Bresson and others), but are followed by some unique and creative playground structures, some of which are mid–century modernist designs. As these images attest, playground equipment can be as simple as a tractor tire or mimic the amorphic abstraction of Jean Arp. So whether you are a landscape architect, a designer or just an inventive kid, all that really matters boils down to one simple question: do children like to play on it?"

(John Foster, 14 April 2013)

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ad-hocadventure playgroundagency • Bob Cassilly • children • climbing structure • Design Observer (magazine) • Ed Kashi • Egon Moller-Nielsenexploration of unfolding possibilitiesexploratory experimentation • Helen Levitt • Henri Cartier-Bresson • imaginationimpromptu playimprovisationIsamu Noguchi • Jean Arp • Joe Brown • John Foster • jungle gymKuro Kanekolandscape architecturelandscape designmake-do playgroundsopen spacesopen-ended play spacesPaul FriedbergPaul Hoganplace for childrenplay • play sculpture • play spacesplaygroundplayground spacesrisk-takingscriptible spaces • sliding board • space and objectstyre swing

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 JULY 2012

Sense of adventure: what happened to playgrounds that give children space?

Aldo "Van Eyck believed playgrounds should challenge a child's imagination without jarring the adult's aesthetic sensibilities. His abstract, elementary forms – often manufactured out of metal tubes like modernist furniture – were meant to belong in a well–mannered streetscape. During the same period in Britain, however, we were developing a tradition of playground design that was almost diametrically opposed. The first 'junk' playgrounds emerged amid the rubble of the Blitz, and the results were far less polite. Consisting of makeshift structures cobbled together out of roof beams and detritus, they were often designed with the assistance of the children themselves. That essential character survives today in descendants such as Glamis Adventure Playground in Shadwell, east London, a riot of skew–whiff woodwork and clashing colours, and an odd hybrid of post–war austerity and postmodern assemblage.

The junk playground model was created by the Danish architect Carl Theodor Sorensen, who believed playgrounds should reflect the imagination of the child not the architect. In 1943, having observed the creative way children play in construction sites, he developed the prototype junk playground on the Emdrup housing estate in Copenhagen.

The concept was brought to Britain by Lady Allen of Hurtwood, who tested it out on the site of a bombed church in Camberwell and then built dozens of what she called 'adventure playgrounds' – the term 'junk' tended to turn local mothers into nimbys. Not only did Allen feel that ordinary playgrounds were sterile places ('it is little wonder that [children] prefer the dumps of rough wood and piles of bricks and rubbish of the bombed sites'), but she believed in the healing effects of exposing children to the urban scars of warfare. At the same time, having them take part in the post–war reconstruction effort was deemed a good way of shaping model citizens.

Essentially, all playgrounds are designed to do the same thing: to help children develop their abilities, use up excess energy and keep them off the streets. But the ideology of the adventure playground is interesting for several reasons. First, there's the notion of not restricting children to the repetitive motions of the slide or swing, because the sooner you reach the technical limits of the equipment, the sooner you have to stretch those limits – hence all those swings you see coiled around the crossbar. The adventure playground was designed to liberate the wild thing within and, by exposing children to risk, teach them personal responsibility (all forms of play are underpinned by some form of didactism, so it's worth reminding ourselves that this is also simply more fun). Just as crucially, it was intrinsic to the concept that children be involved in designing the playgrounds, dreaming up weird structures and adapting them later by tacking on extra elements. This participatory dimension, managed by volunteer play leaders, is key to the development of their creativity.

It's curious how much the ethos of the adventure playground chimes with the language of a new era of design today: a 'participatory' process, recycled materials, an adaptive product. It doesn't sound like the 1940s. But equally valuable is the zone of exception that the adventure playground represents in the city, one of improvisation and informality that, pace Van Eyck, does not blend in to a polite streetscape.

Today, there are few true adventure playgrounds left, but occasionally another is built that follows all the essential tenets, such as the Kilburn Grange Park playground in north London, designed last year by Erect Architecture and based on the ideas of local kids. Increasingly, though, 'adventure playgrounds' are produced by specialist manufacturers and merely designed to look rustic. You can't adapt them, or at least anyone who tried would be carted off. These are the products of a health and safety culture that watered down adventure playgrounds in the 1980s and 90s. There was a minor revival a few years ago, when the Labour government invested £230m in new play spaces across England, but the coalition government freed that budget up for other uses, so it was short–lived. And now, with the cuts, several adventure playgrounds, including the giant ones in Battersea and Kilburn, face losing the play workers that make such playgrounds what they are.

It's worth remembering just how cheap and yet how luxurious these spaces are. We should let kids loose on this new breed of sanitised playground, to inject a little of the old spirit in them. I hear the builder behind Kilburn Grange Park salvaged the formwork from Zaha Hadid's Olympic diving towers – that could come in handy."

(Justin McGuirk, Tuesday 3 July 2012 15.40 BST, The Guardian)

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1940s19431980s1990sad-hocadventure playgroundAldo van EyckAlfred Trachselausterity • Battersea • bomb site • Camberwell • Carl Theodor Sorensen • challenge imagination • childhood imaginationchildren • clashing colours • coalition governmentcobbled together • construction site • CopenhagencreativityDanishDenmarkdetritus • didactic • didactism • dream up • elementary forms • Emdrup housing estate • Empress Frederick • engagement • Erect Architecture • exposure to risk • formwork • free expressionfun • Glamis Adventure Playground • healing effects • health and safety culturehybridimaginationimprovisation • informality • junkjunk playgroundjunk playgrounds • Justin McGuirk • Kilburn Grange Park • Labour governmentLady Allen of Hurtwoodlearningmakeshift • model citizen • modernismmodernist aestheticmodernist furniture • new era of design • NIMBY • open-endedopen-ended play spacesparticipatoryparticipatory processpersonal responsibilityplay • play leader • play spaces • play worker • playground • playground design • playscapespost-war • post-war reconstruction • postmodern assemblagerecycled materialsrisk-takingRobinson Crusoe • rough wood • rubbishrustic • salvaged • sanitised • scriptible spaces • Shadwell • skew-whiff • sterile placesstreetscape • Theodor Sorenson • urban scars • warfare • weird structures • Zaha Hadid

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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