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13 JULY 2012

Trevor Hussey and Patrick Smith: The Uses of Learning Outcomes

"This paper argues that learning outcomes need to be reclaimed from their current use as devices for monitoring and audit, and returned to their proper use in aiding good teaching and learning. We require a broader, flexible and more realistic understanding of learning outcomes, better suited to the realities of the classroom and of practical use to those teachers who wish to respond to the enthusiasm of their students. To this end, a new model is produced that starts from the idea of an articulated curriculum, and embraces both intended and emergent learning outcomes. The model employs the distinction between predicted and unpredicted learning outcomes, together with the distinction between those that are desirable and those that are undesirable. The resulting account is intended to aid understanding of the nature and proper use of learning outcomes in teaching and learning."

(Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith, p.357, 2003)

Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith (2003). "The Uses of Learning Outcomes", Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2003, pp.357–368, ISSN 1356–2517 (print)/ISSN 1470–1294 (online)/03/030357–12, 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd., DOI: 10.1080/1356251032000088574

TAGS

accountabilityadministriviaaid to understandingambiguityambiguity and uncertainty • articulated curriculum • auditaudit culture • auditing • best practicebureaucracy • constructive alignment • contiguous learning outcomes • corridor of tolerance • curriculum designcurriculum development • David Megginson • desirable outcomes • effective alignment • ELO • emergent curriculum • emergent learning outcomes • enhancing learning • experienced teachers • flexibility • good teaching and learning • higher education • ILO • incidental learning outcomes • indecisiveness • intended learning outcomes • John Biggs • learnerslearning and teaching • learning moments • learning outcomesmonitoring • Patrick Smith • pedagogic recontextualising fieldpedagogypractical usepredictability • predicted learning outcomes • QAA • realistic understanding • realities of the classroom • related learning outcomes • responding to enthusiasm • student enthusiasmstudent learningteachersteaching • Teaching in Higher Education (journal) • Trevor Hussey • uncertainty • unpredicted learning outcomes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 MARCH 2011

A simple abstract model of human communication

"One of the first designs of the information theory is the model of communication by Shannon and Weaver. Claude Shannon, an engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories, worked with Warren Weaver on the classic book 'The mathematical theory of communication'. In this work Shannon and Weaver sought to identify the quickest and most efficient way to get a message from one point to another. Their goal was to discover how communication messages could be converted into electronic signals most efficiently, and how those signals could be transmitted with a minimum of error. In studying this, Shannon and Weaver developed a mechanical and mathematical model of communication, known as the 'Shannon and Weaver model of communication'. ...

Shannon and Weaver broadly defined communication as 'all of the procedures by which one mind may affect another'. Their communication model consisted of an information source: the source's message, a transmitter, a signal, and a receiver: the receiver's message, and a destination. Eventually, the standard communication model featured the source or encoder, who encodes a message by translating an idea into a code in terms of bits. A code is a language or other set of symbols or signs that can be used to transmit a thought through one or more channels to elicit a response in a receiver or decoder. Shannon and Weaver also included the factor noise into the model. The study conducted by Shannon and Weaver was motivated by the desire to increase the efficiency and accuracy or fidelity of transmission and reception. Efficiency refers to the bits of information per second that can be sent and received. Accuracy is the extent to which signals of information can be understood. In this sense, accuracy refers more to clear reception than to the meaning of message. This engineering model asks quite different questions than do other approaches to human communication research."

(Communication Studies, University of Twente)

Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Hawes, L.C. (1975). Pragmatics of analoguing: Theory and model construction in communication. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley.

Fig.1 Mathematical (information) model of communication.

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TAGS

abstract modelabstractionaccuracyBell LabsBell Telephone LaboratoriesClaude Shannon • communicating system • communicationcommunication processcommunication theorydisorderefficiencyentropyfidelity • human communication research • information technologyinformation theorymeaning makingmessagemodel of communicationnoise • output • pioneeringpredictabilityrandomness • receiver • reception • redundancysignalsymbolsystems approachsystems theorytheory of communication • transmission • transmission model of communicationtransmitter • University of Twente • Warren Weaver

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 DECEMBER 2008

The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable

"Taleb's view is that our inability to get to grips with these unprecedented phenomena is, in part, hard–wired into us. But that's no excuse for the entire disciplines, both in business and academia, that have still been erected on the shifting sand of our ignorance. Economists, social scientists, philosophers, historians – all must feel the wrath of Taleb, but none more so than statisticians, whom he castigates for falling victim to the falsifications of the Gaussian Bell Curve."

(Will Self, 10 June 2007, The Independent)

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TAGS

2007 • black swan events • conceptualisation • Gaussian Bell Curve • known unknowns • ludic fallacy • Nassim Nicholas Taleb • phenomenapredictability • shifting sand • The Black Swan (2007) • theorytheory building • unprecedented phenomena

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
09 SEPTEMBER 2008

W3C: standardising the web

"The W3C mission is to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure the long–term growth of the Web. Below we discuss important aspects of this mission, all of which further W3C's vision of One Web."

(World Wide Web Consortium)

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TAGS

19941995adoption of standardsagreementARPAnetCERN • compatibility • computer scienceconsortium • core principles • DARPA • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency • digital cultureEuropean Commission • European Organization for Nuclear Research • guidelinesHTML • incompatibility • inconsistency • industry members • information technology • INRIA • international communityInternet • Jeffrey Jaffe • knowledge management • LCS • Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory • member organisations • MITnew medianew standardsone webontologypredictabilityprinciplesprotocolssemantic websoftware engineeringsolutionspecificationstandardisationstandards compliantstandards-based web technologiesstructurestructured datatechnologyTim Berners-Leeunificationusability • vendors • W3Cwebweb pagesweb standards • World Wide Web Consortium

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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