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Which clippings match 'Logical Positivism' keyword pg.1 of 2
20 APRIL 2015

Normal-scientific research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies

"Mop-ping-up operations are what engage most scientists throughout their careers. They constitute what I am here calling normal science. Closely examined, whether historically or in the contemporary laboratory, that enterprise seems an attempt to force nature into the preformed and relatively inflexible box that the paradigm supplies. No part of the aim of normal science is to call forth new sorts of phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the box are often not seen at all. Nor do scientists normally aim to invent new theories, and they are often intolerant of those invented by others.[1] Instead, normal-scientific research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies.

Perhaps these are defects. The areas investigated by normal science are, of course, minuscule; the enterprise now under discussion has drastically restricted vision. But those restrictions, born from confidence in a paradigm, turn out to be essential to the development of science. By focusing attention upon a small range of relatively esoteric problems, the paradigm forces scientists to investigate some part of nature in a detail and depth that would otherwise be unimaginable. And normal science possesses a built-in mechanism that ensures the relaxation of the restrictions that bound research whenever the paradigm from which they derive ceases to function effectively. At that point scientists begin to behave differently, and the nature of their research problems changes. In the interim, however, during the period when the paradigm is successful, the profession will have solved problems that its members could scarcely have imagined and would never have undertaken without commitment to the paradigm."

(Thomas Kuhn, 1962, Vol. II, No. 2, p.24)

Thomas S. Kuhn (1962). "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions".

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TAGS

1962 • accurate predictions • anomalies • ascendant revolution • Bernard Barber • conceptual continuity • development-by-accumulation • episodic model • history of science • history of scientific knowledge • logical positivism • logically determinate procedure • normal science • paradigm • paradigm shiftphilosophy of science • philosophy of scientific knowledge • puzzle-solving • realistic humanism • revolutionary science • science • scientific discovery • scientific knowledgescientific progress • scientific revolutions • sociology of scientific knowledge • Thomas Kuhn • useless science

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 FEBRUARY 2014

This Thing Called Science: videos to explain scientific concepts

"TechNyou is a free information service to help raise awareness about emerging technologies and associated issues, for example GM foods, stem cells, gene therapy, cloning, synthetic biology and nanotechnologies."

The series includes: This Thing Called Science Part 1: Call me skeptical; This Thing Called Science Part 2: Testing, testing 1–2–3; This Thing Called Science Part 3: Blinded by Science; This Thing Called Science Part 4: Confidently Uncertain; This Thing Called Science Part 5: Do the right thing; This Thing Called Science Part 6: Citizen Science.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Liam Birtles
06 JANUARY 2013

Science depends on interpretation, community and tradition

"The beacons of the philosophy of science include Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend, and Bruno Latour who refute scientism from various angles: arguing that scientific observations are theory and value laden, science takes place within communities, science can be anarchic, etc, all suggesting that science is as dependent on processes of interpretation, community, and tradition as any aspect of the humanities."

(Richard Coyne, 2011)

Excerpted from a letter to the editor, first published in ARQ: Richard Coyne (2011). What's science got to do with it?. Architectural Research Quarterly, 15 , pp 205–206, doi:10.1017/S135913551100073X

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TAGS

2011anarchic • Architectural Research Quarterly • ARQ • Baruch SpinozaBruno Latour • Chris Argyris • codify • Donald Schon • encyclopaedism • externality • General Systems Theory • GST • Herbert SimonJohn DeweyKarl Popper • letter to the editor • logical positivism • Ludwig von Bertalanffy • optimistic scientism • Paul Feyerabend • Peter Ramus • philosophy of sciencerationalityresearch culturesRichard Coynescience • science communities • science interpretation • scientific knowledgescientific observationsscientific traditionscientismsystematisationsystems theorytechnology as neutralThomas Kuhnvalue ladenVienna Circle

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 JUNE 2011

Ayn Rand: objective reality

"In this engaging 1959 interview, her first on television, Ayn Rand capsulizes her philosophy for CBS's Mike Wallace. The discussion ranges from the nature of morality to the economic and historical distortions disseminated about the 'robber barons.' She also comments on her relationship with Frank O'Connor, provides some autobiographical information and gives her perspective on the future of America."

(Uploaded by hastelculo on 8 Jan 2008)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 JULY 2009

Otto Neurath and Josef Frank: habit and tradition shape daily life

"the interpretation I would like to offer is that the relationship between architectural modernism and the Vienna Circle was a problematic one at best. The principal reasons were philosophical and ideological in nature. Specifically, over the course of the second half of the 1920s and early 1930s [Otto] Neurath and Josef Frank grew increasingly skeptical [sic] of the idea that the planning of the physical environment could cause corresponding changes in the social environment. That is to say, they were acutely conscious of the role that habit and tradition played in shaping daily life, and they were not convinced that the anti–decorative language that modernist architecture embodied would bring about social and political change of its own accord."

(Nader Vossoughian, HOPOS Lecture, 25 June 2004)

Fig.1 The Müller Villa in Prague which was commissioned by František Müller and his wife Milada and built between 1928 and 1930 according to Adolf Loos's design.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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