"This is a story from early in the technological revolution, when the application was out searching for the hardware, from a time before the Internet, a time before the PC, before the chip, before the mainframe. From a time even before programming itself.
Tasman's 1957 prophecy was no shot in the dark. His view of the future was a projection from his recent past. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. had assigned him in 1949 to be IBM liaison and support person for a young Jesuit's daring project to produce an index to the complete writings of St. Thomas Aquinas. First, Tasman's thesis, as subsequent history turned out, was a huge understatement; and second, it essentially defines the first large invention of Father Roberto Busa, S. J., namely, to look at 'tools developed primarily for science and commerce' and to see other uses for them. As will be seen, this was a case of fortune favoring the prepared mind. Redirecting scholarship, he essentially invented the machine-generated concordance, the first of which he had published in 1951.
Father Busa, of course, is best known as the producer of the landmark 56-volume Index Thomisticus. As he began this work in 1946, and produced a sample proof-of-concept, machine-generated concordance in 1951, his professional life spans the entire computing chapter in the history of scholarship. Emphasis in this article will be on the early steps."
(Thomas Nelson Winter, January 1999)
Published in The Classical Bulletin 75:1 (1999), pp. 3-20. Copyright © 1999 Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc.
"Most New Zealanders watched David Lange contest and win the 1985 Oxford Union debate, arguing the proposition that 'nuclear weapons are morally indefensible' with a mixture of pride and astonishment. After decades of knowing our place, and several years of government by homunculus, suddenly we had a Prime Minister who could stride the international stage with insouciance. And briefly, we seemed to matter.
Although New Zealand's nuclear-free policy did not become law until 1987, it was integral to early years of the fourth Labour government. The 1984 snap election that made Lange Prime Minister was called by Robert Muldoon when National MP Marilyn Waring withdrew her support for her party over the issue of nuclear ship visits. Labour won the election with a nuclear ban as a flagship policy.
The policy was popular among New Zealanders, but not without cost. Our relationship with the US deteriorated in the early weeks of 1985. On the same journey that took him to Oxford, Lange, four days before the debate, met with a US State Department official who outlined the retaliatory measures that the US would be taking against New Zealand. The ANZUS alliance of which New Zealand had been part since 1951 was effectively cancelled at that meeting."
(Public Address, 14 October 2004)
This is the introduction to the transcript of the Rt. Hon. David Lange's 1985 Oxford Debate. The transcript is copyright to Public Address. It was prepared by Russell Brown and Fiona Rae, with the consent of David Lange. Thanks are due to Radio New Zealand’s Sound Archives/Nga Taonga Korero (File: Media Numbers T4705 to T4708), Infofind, the Parliamentary Library and Barry Hartley.
"In 1925 the electrical broadcasting microphone was introduced into gramophone studios. Because of its enormously greater range and sensitivity the microphone revolutionised gramophone recording overnight. Thinking about recording methods as they had been during his entire career up to 1925, Fred Gaisberg wrote:
In some ways acoustic recording flattered the voice. A glance at the rich catalogue of that period will show that it was the heyday of the singer.... The inadequacy of the accompaniments to the lovely vocal records made in the Acoustic Age was their great weakness. There was no pretence of using the composer's score; we had to arrange it for wind instruments [largely] ... and all nuances (such as pianissimo effects) were omitted ....
Acoustically recorded sound had reached the limit of progress. The top frequencies were triple C - 2,088 vibrations per second - and the low remained at E - 164 vibrations per second. Voices and instruments (especially stringed instruments) were confined rigidly within these boundaries, although the average human ear perceives from 30 to 15,000 vibrations per second, and musical sounds range from 60 to 8,000 vibrations"
A VOICE IN TIME: The Gramophone Of Fred Gaisberg 1873-1951", Jerrold Northrop Moore, Hamish Hamilton Ltd., London: 1976
[extract Fred Gaisberg compared the limitations of acoustic recording with the improvements in sound fidelity available with electric recording; which he first found out about from his old friend, Russell Hunting]
"Der erst später entdeckte und restaurierte 'Ensemble for Somnambulists' ist eine Fingerübung der Meisterin, mit der sie den acht Jahre später entstandenen 'The Very Eye of Night' vorschattieren ließ. Wie auch in ihrem berühmten Tanzfilm photographiert sie Tänzer, deren schwerelose Bewegungen sie in der Postproduktion durch das Invertieren des Filmbildes zu einer galaktischen Revue ohne Rücksicht auf physikalische Logik und Gravitation. Fast noch rätselhafter und anziehender als 'The Very Eye of Night' ist dieses Frühwerg aufgrund ihres vermehrten Einsatzes von Nahaufnahmen, die die Tänzer in schwebender, sehnsüchtiger Starre zeigen, so als würden sie in der Umlaufbahn unserer Welt kreisen, zu einer ewigen Tanzfigur verdammt.
'Ensemble for Somnambulists' ist voller rhythmischer Schnittentscheide. Obwohl Deren diesen Film nur als Beispielwerk für ihre Schüler in einem Toronto-Film-Society-workshop diente, mutet der Film wie visuelle Musik an. Wie, als hätte man die Töne des Walzers, zu dem die Sternentänzer sich bewegen, in Montage übersetzt und als eine unvollendete Symphonie endlich der Öffentlichkeit preisgegeben."
[Pioneer film director Maya Deren created this short experiment as a precursor to her arguably more accomplished film 'The Very Eye of Night'. In this way the film represents evidence of Deren's approach to building theory through practice.]