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Which clippings match 'Cite' keyword pg.1 of 1
29 OCTOBER 2017

Artists appropriate when they adopt imagery, concepts and ways of making art other artists have used at other times

"Appropriation, first of all, is a common technique. People appropriate when they make things their own and integrate them into their way of life, by buying or stealing commodities, acquiring knowledge, claiming places as theirs and so on. Artists appropriate when they adopt imagery, concepts and ways of making art other artists have used at other times to adapt these artistic means to their own interests, or when they take objects, images or practices from popular (or foreign) cultures and restage them within the context of their work to either enrich or erode conventional definitions of what an artwork can be. As such, this technique could be described as comparatively timeless, or at least, as being practiced as long as modern society exists. For, ever since labour was divided and the abstract organization of social life alienated people from the way in which they would want to live, appropriation has been a practice of getting back from society what it takes from its members. At the same time, appropriation can be understood as one of the most basic procedures of modern art production and education. To cite, copy and modify exemplary works from art history is the model for developing art practice (neo)classicist tendencies have always championed. During the last two centuries this model was repeatedly challenged by advocates of the belief that modern individuals should produce radically new art by virture of their spontaneous creativity. The postmodern critics of this cult of individual genius in turn claimed that it is a gross ideological distortion to portray the making of art as a heroic act of original creation. Instead they advanced the paradigm of appropriation as a materialist model that describes art production as the gradual re-shuffling of a basic set of cultural terms through their strategical re-use and eventual transformation."

(Jan Verwoert, 2007)

ART&RESEARCH: A Journal of Ideas, Contexts and Methods, Volume 1. No. 2. Summer 2007, ISSN 1752-6388



2007 • acquiring knowledge • adopting concepts • adopting imagery • adopting ways of making art • appropriation practicesArt and Research (journal)art historyart practice • artistic appropriation • artistic meansartworkauthor as geniusauthorshipcitationcite • common creative technique • copy and modify • copy-and-paste culturecopying of artistic works • Craig Owens • creative genius • creative technique • cult of individual genius • cult of the author • Douglas Crimp • exemplary works • expropriation • Frederic Jameson • genial creatorgenius myth • heroic act • ideological distortion • Jan Verwoert • making of art • materialist model • modern art • modern art education • modern art production • neoclassicist tendencies • nothing is original • original creation • pastiche • postmodern critics • radically new art • Robert Longoromantic notion of the artist • spontaneous creativity


Simon Perkins
10 FEBRUARY 2012

Jim Jarmusch: authenticity is invaluable; originality is non-existent!

"Nothing is original. Steal from anywhere that resonates with inspiration or fuels your imagination. Devour old films, new films, music, books, paintings, photographs, poems, dreams, random conversations, architecture, bridges, street signs, trees, clouds, bodies of water, light and shadows. Select only things to steal from that speak directly to your soul. If you do this, your work (and theft) will be authentic. Authenticity is invaluable; originality is non–existent. And don't bother concealing your thievery – celebrate it if you feel like it. In any case, always remember what Jean–Luc Godard said: 'It's not where you take things from – it's where you take them to."

(Jim Jarmusch)



Simon Perkins
01 MAY 2011

Credo Reference Concept Map: visualising search terms for easy reference

"The Concept Map is a visual map that displays how search terms and topics in Credo Reference are interconnected. The Concept Map displays the connections between search results in a visual, interactive and easy–to–use format. It enables users to quickly find information when they don't know what to look for, when they need topic ideas for papers or research projects, or want to expand their knowledge of a given area."

(Credo Reference)



category • citable information • citeclassificationconcept mapcontent • Credo Reference • encyclopaediainformation in contextknowledge managementlibrarylinkmind mappingonline libraryorganising • reference books • resourcesearchsearch for informationvisualisation


Simon Perkins

Learning that comes from synthesising information from multiple types of media

As new methods of interacting with information become more ubiquitous, [Chris Dede of the Harvard Graduate School of Education] suggests, citing Second Life–type virtual immersion environments as an example, students will grow up with different expectations and preferences for acquiring knowledge and skills. The implication is less of an emphasis on the "sage on the stage" and a linear acquisition process focusing on a "single best source," focusing instead on "active learning" that comes from synthesising information from multiple types of media.
(Andy Guess, Inside Higher Ed)

Fig.1 Katherine J. Huber, 'Roosevelt High School, Library/Media Center'.

25 OCTOBER 2005

Citation as a form of persuasion

"Weinstock (1971) lists 15 discrete 'reasons for using citations', including 'paying homage to pioneers; giving credit for related work; identifying methodology, equipment, etc; ... criticising previous work, substantiating claims; ... disclaiming work or ideas of others; disputing priority claims of others'. More parsimoniously, Chubin and Moitra (1975) categorise references as, broadly, affirmative and negational. They subdivide the affirmative group into basic and subsidiary, additional and perfunctory, and the negational group into partial and total. Within physics, which they take as the basis for their analysis, they find very few partially negational references and no totally negational ones – a point to be taken up in the subsequent discussion of academic controversy. Gilbert (1977b) argues that the main function of referencing is to act as a covert form of persuasion; and, in staunch ethnomethodological tradition, Small (1978) contends that cited documents serve as 'concept symbols' – 'in citing a document the author is creating its meaning': besides 'its functional, social and political implications', citation may be used 'to curry favour, to publicise, to favour one approach over another', and so on."
(Tony Becher, p.87)

Becher, Tony. 1989 "Academic Tribes and Territories: Intellectual Enquiry and the Cultures of Disciplines", Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

Chubin, D. E. and Moitra, S. (1975) Content analysis of references. Social Studies of Science, 5, pp. 423–41
Gilbert, G. (1977b) Referencing as persuasion. Social Studies of Science, 7, pp. 113–22
Small, H. (1978) Cited documents as concept symbols. Social Studies of Science, 8, pp. 327–40.

Fig.1 CDRyan, 2008. COMMANDS. Series of 3 Digital Prints, 5 x 7 inches Atmostheory



Chubin • citationcitation as a form of persuasionciteconcept symbolsconceptualisationcreditingenquiry • G. Nigel Gilbert • Harvard Referencing System • Henry Small • insight • Michael Weinstock • Moitra • paying homagepersuasionprecedencereferenceresearchstanding on the shoulders of giantstheory building • Tony Becher

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