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Which clippings match 'Representational Thinking' keyword pg.1 of 1
16 NOVEMBER 2014

In cognitive linguistics metaphors are not simply stylistic devices but processes which enable understanding through the mapping of source domains onto target domains

"The conception of metaphor in cognitive linguistics contradicts the conception of metaphor in literary studies in fundamental ways: Metaphor is not a stylistic device, but an experiential and cognitive process, in which we use properties, relations, and entities that characterize one domain of experience and/or knowledge (source domain) to understand, think, plan, and talk about a second domain (target domain) that is different in kind from the first. [7]

According to CMT [conceptual metaphor theory], source domains come from everyday bodily perception and movement. They are grounded in embodied experience (grounding hypothesis). Source domains are needed to make sense of target domains. By definition, a conceptual metaphor is a unidirectional mapping across cognitive domains. The mappings are tightly structured and structure from a source domain is (partially) mapped onto a target domain. The mapping is highly selective, as there are ontological correspondences according to which entities in the source domain (agents, objects, trajectories and so forth) systematically correspond to entities in the target domain. The point is, that we do not copy structure from SD [source domains] to TD [target domains], but we import whole sets of knowledge / inferences / entailments from the source domain into the target domain. The mapping does not work according to an arbitrary rule, but it is a tightly packed, highly selective and constrained process that allows us to reason about abstract domains. [7]"

(Alexandra Jandausch, 2012)

[7] Lakoff, George (1997): "Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind". Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jandausch, A. (2012). "Conceptual Metaphor Theory and the Conceptualization of Music". 5th International Conference of Students of Systematic Musicology. Montreal, Canada.

Fig.1. The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation, Passive Smoking: Shotgun [http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/the_roy_castle_lung_cancer_foundation_passive_smoking_shotgun].

[The source domain in the following image refers to the concept of a shotgun, which through its mapping onto the target domain of the cigarettes communicates the idea that smoking kills.]

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TAGS

2012 • abstract conceptual relations • Alexandra Jandausch • analogue correspondence • argument is war • automated metaphorical mappings • basic metaphor theory • bodily movement • bodily perception • cognitive domain • cognitive linguistics • cognitive process • conceptual correspondence • conceptual domainconceptual metaphor • conceptual metaphor theory • conceptualisation of music • cross-modal metaphor • domain of experience • domain of knowledge • embodied experience • experiential process • Friedemann Pulvermuller • George Lakoff • Gilles Fauconnier • grounding hypothesis • image schema theory • image schemas • inference • inference patterns • Jay Seitz • Jean Mandler • literary studies • love is a journey • mapping • mappings • Mark Johnson • Mark Turner • metaphor • metaphoric relations • Michael Tomasello • mnemonic • movement-movement metaphor • musicology • ontological correspondence • patterns of semantic change • perceptual-affective metaphor • perceptual-perceptual metaphor • polysemyrepresentational thinkingrepresentational thinking expressed in metaphors • systematic correspondence • target-domain as source-domain • target-domain is source-domain • theories are buildings • theory of music • unconscious metaphorical mappings • unidirectional mapping • University of Cologne • Vittorio Gallese

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
26 APRIL 2014

Virality: Contagion Theory in the Age of Networks

Tony D. Sampson (2012). "Virality. Contagion Theory in the Age of Networks. University of Minnesota Press.

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TAGS

2013 • age of networks • Alexander Galloway • antivirus industry • Antonio Negri • assemblage theory • biological knowledge of contagion • biological meme • biological metaphor • Bruno Latour • category clutter • clash of cultures • communication theory • concerns over too much connectivity • contagion • contagion theory • contagious affects • contagious assemblagescontagious desire • contagious events • contagious phenomena • contagiousness of phantomscritical position • crowd behaviour • cultural studiesdiversity • document classification • Emile Durkheimempathy • Eugene Thacker • Gabriel TardeGilles Deleuze • global cultures • global financial crisis • hybrid states of constant flows • hybridity • imposing identities • imposing oppositions • imposing resemblancesinformation exchangeinformation flowinformation theoryintangibility • limiting analysis • mass culture • mass empathy • media archeology • media studies • media theorist • medical metaphor • Michael Hardt • microbe • microbial contagion • microsociology • mindless acceptance • mindless imitation • modernism • molecular • molecular epidemiology studiesmolecule • nature of being • network analysis • network culture • network cultures • network science • network society • network theory • networked informationnetworks • neurological metaphor • neurosciencenodes and connections • non-imitation • non-linear ontology • online social spaces • ontological worldview • over categorisation • overcategorise • physical social spaces • purity • regressive listener • reliance on representational thinkingrepresentational thinkingrepresentational thinking expressed in analogiesrepresentational thinking expressed in metaphors • resist contamination • resuscitating • revolutionary contagion • social and cultural domains • social behaviour of networking • social bodies • social media • social relationalities • socialisation • sociological event • sociological studies • sociology • sociology of networks • solidarity within crowds • somnambulist • spontaneous revolution • stoic behaviour • subject indexing • terrorismTheodor Adorno • Tony Sampson • viralviral love • viral networks • virality

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
10 DECEMBER 2010

The problem of conflating symbolic and logical concepts with real world material objects

"the portrayal of WikiLeaks as a website might have been a brilliant piece of misdirection. People in general don't tend to grasp information theory, but it's sometimes particularly easy to laugh at just how little understanding some sections of the establishment appear to have:

'The Defense Department demands that WikiLeaks return immediately to the U.S. government all versions of documents obtained directly or indirectly from the Department of Defense databases or records' (Kevin Poulsen, 5 August 2010, 8:44 pm)

There are, I think, two important things about WikiLeaks. The first is the use of technology – of the internet and cryptography – to facilitate the collection of information from anonymous sources. The second is the fact that information is available in a digitised form. This latter property means that leaking a gigabit of information is hardly more difficult than leaking a single bit. If someone has the information and the motivation to leak something, it will be leaked. All that WikiLeaks does is to solicit this information actively. It's a brand, and an organisation, and a network, but it's not really a website."

(Paul Battley, 05 December 2010)

[This a problem caused by conflating symbolic and logical concepts with real world material objects. In this case the use of the metaphor of 'the web' conflates the symbolic structure of a spider's web with the structural logic of an information network. In doing so the metaphor makes concrete that which it is not i.e. it is an intangible and dynamic coded system of information flows which is in a constant state of transformation.]

Poulsen, K. (2010, 5 August, 8:44 pm). "Pentagon Demands WikiLeaks 'Return' All Classified Documents." Wired.com August 2010. from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/08/pentagon–demands–wikileaks/.

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TAGS

2010 • conflating logical concepts with real world material objects • conflating symbolic concepts with real world material objects • conspiracy • cryptographydata security • database records • defence department • defense • digital culturedigitisation • Geoff Morrell • Governmentimmaterialityimposing resemblancesinformation collectioninformation sharinginformation theoryintangibilityInternet • leak • leaking classified information • limits of languagelogical fallacy • misdirection • networkontological worldview • Paul Battley • press secretary • public disclosure • real world material objects • real world objectsreal world visual metaphorreliance on representational thinkingrepresentational thinkingrepresentational thinking expressed in analogiesrepresentational thinking expressed in metaphors • US Pentagon • website • whack-a-mole • Wikileaks

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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