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Which clippings match 'Television Programming' keyword pg.1 of 2
30 OCTOBER 2015

Ephemeral Media: temporal programmatic recombinatory practice

"Kuleshov's insights gave voice to a temporal recombinatory practice that is older than the film medium, evident for example in nineteenth-century programming of magiclantern exhibitions, where showmen learned to build – and to rework – stories from the slides that they happened to have. But these early practices, particularly as they appeared through film's first decade or so, actually made use of recombinatory logic in a double sense. First, in the hands of film-makers such as Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith, the sequence of shots was manipulated to construct overall textual meaning (just as Kuleshov would later theorise and experimentally demonstrate). Second, the positioning of the films of Porter, Griffiths and others into full programmes (complete with lantern slides, actualités and other narratives) could itself radically transform the meanings of individual films. Here, the programmer (usually the projectionist) could, through simple manipulation of film sequence, comment upon or build different frameworks of coherence for a particular film. This metalevel of recombination was not discussed by Kuleshov and, indeed, largely took residual form in exhibition practice. But it was seized upon by television (and radio), where programmatic recombination would emerge as the economic lifeblood of the industry in the form of the rerun. And it provides one of the keys to television's distinctive deployment of ephemeral programme elements. Television's programming logics turn on a triad of organisational principles when it comes to texts, ephemeral and not: sequence, interpenetration and repetition."

(William Uricchio, 2011)

[2] Derek Kompare (2005) offers an excellent overview of this practice.

William Uricchio, "The Recurrent, the Recombinatory and the Ephemeral," in Paul Grainge, ed., Ephemeral Media: Transitory Screen Culture from Television to YouTube (London: British Film Institute / Palgrave MacMillan, 2011): 23-36 [http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/ephemeral-media-paul-grainge/?isb=9781844574353].

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actualites • broadcast era programming • broadcast schedule • careful orchestration of programme units • changing constituency of viewers • commercial television • content recycling • contextualisationcontinuous viewing • David Wark Griffith • displaced micro-programme elements • Edwin Porter • ephemeral media • ephemeral programme elements • exhibition practice • frameworks of coherence • frequency of repetition • iconic footage • interconnect programme elements • interpenetration • interstitials • John Ellis • juxtaposed imagesKuleshov Effect • larger whole • line-up • magic lantern • manipulation of film sequence • mass media • metalevel recombination • metatextNatural Born Killers • news headlines • organisational principles • paratext • Paul Grainge • persuasive logic • programmatic historical framing • programmatic recombination • programme bumpers • programme hooks • programme segments • programme units • projectionist • punctuation of programme sequence • radio • recombinatory logic • recombinatory practice • recycling of footage • recycling programmes • remote controlrepetition • rerun • residual form • rework • rupture engagement • self-programmer • sequence design • sequence of shots • showmen • television and broadcasting • television programmingtelevision studiestemporal contiguity • temporal recombinatory practice • textual meaning • thirty-minute rotation • timed advertisements • transitory screen culture • watching television • William Uricchio • YouTube channel • YouTube segments

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
17 APRIL 2015

Tactical Media Files: a living archive of social-political action

"Tactical Media emerged when the modest goals of media artists and media activists were transformed into a movement that challenged everyone to produce their own media in support of their own political struggles. This "new media" activism was based on the insight that the long-held distinction between the 'street' (reality) and the 'media' (representation) could no longer be upheld. On the contrary, the media had come to infuse all of society.

To challenge dominant (strategic) structures in society, it was necessary develop new (tactical) means of producing and distributing media. Not a specialised task separate from the social movements, but a key activity around which social movements could coalesce. And of equal importance, the media environment characterised by a broadcast logic of geography was being supplemented with an environment characterised by a many-to-many logic of access.

Though much has changed these insights remain as valid today as they did in the early 1990s."

(Eric Kluitenberg and David Garcia)

Fig.1 Image from: Critical Art Ensemble, Digital Resistance: Explorations in Tactical Media, 2001. http://critical-art.net/books/digital

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1990sagency of access and engagementamateur cultural productionAmsterdamartist collectivebig media • broadcast logic • broadcast mediacollective actioncritical artcritical engagementcritical perspectivescritical practices • David Garcia • digital resistance • Eric Kluitenberg • hegemonic discourse • International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam • living archive • living practice • many-to-many • media activism • media archive • media environment • media representation • multimedia organisation • new media activism • new tactical means • participative mediapolitical action • political struggles • politics of resistance • power and agency • producing and distributing media • renewal and re-invention • social historysocial movementstactical engagementtactical media • Tactical Media Files • television programming

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 JANUARY 2015

The Emergency Broadcast Network

"EBN works to harness the power of multimedia audio–visual technology into the most effective electronic behavior control system.

EBN's techniques involve a collection and analysis of massive amounts of randomly recorded audio and video television programming. After a careful screening internal process, the choicest bits are chosen for inclusion in compositions using internal digital sampling and video editing in their own production facility."

(fUSION Anomaly, 12 January 2003)

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1990s1991appropriationaudiovisual mash-upsauthor as editor • Brian Kane • cable televisioncritical reinterpretationculture jammingcut-up technique • digital sampling • driving beatediting through selection • Emergency Broadcast Network (EBN) • experimental video • Gardner Post • George Bush Snr • Greg Deocampo • Gulf Warhip-hop beatsinfluential video artists • Joshua Pearson • multimedia performance group • re-editre-purposerecombinantrepurposingRhode Island School of Designsampled footagespoken-word samplingstutter effecttelevision programmingVHSvideo collagevideo remix • video scratching • video turntablist • VJ

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
23 DECEMBER 2013

Comux: sustainable local TV based on a community ownership model

"Comux UK was created in 2011 by Ed Hall. In 2013 it was awarded the licence by Ofcom to operate the digital transmission infrastructure. Comux offers an equitable, cost–efficient and community–driven approach to provide a wide range of services to local TV broadcasters in the UK.

We believe our approach creates a commercially sustainable and robust solution to the unique challenges facing local TV operators, and has the potential to provide an attractive return to the licence holders, and to the local TV industry as a whole. In particular we believe our model addresses the key challenge that local TV faces, which is the financial barrier to launching and successfully maintaining a local TV channel."

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2011Birminghambroadcast media • broadcast media network • broadcasting • Canis Media • community ownership model • Comux UK • digital infrastructure • digital switchover • digital terrestrial television • distribution infrastructure • Ed Hall • EPG • Ericsson Ltdfreeviewlocal audienceslocal televisionlocal television stationlocal TVlocal TV station • multiplexing • national network • network modelOfcom • playout • television networktelevision productiontelevision programmingTVTV channelTV stationUK

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 SEPTEMBER 2013

ShortsTV: short film cable and satellite television channel

"ShortsTV is the global home to short film, where short stories come to life in stunning high definition. Available across the USA and Europe, the channel brings audiences captivating contemporary short form content from filmmakers across six continents. Following unprecedented growth in the demand for short films, it is now available to 40 million homes and is successfully entertaining over 11 million subscribers. ShortsTV is a world–leading short film media group, designed with movie enthusiasts and experimental 'lean forward' viewers in mind. Combining cutting edge short films with new spectacular HD technology, audiences of all ages can expand their viewing pleasure from the comforts of their own home, or on the move through mobile devices. ShortsTV obtains only high quality live action, animation, and documentary movies from the world's most famous film festivals and independent suppliers. Through the acquisition of these films, the channel offers professional short filmmakers an unparalleled commercial medium to develop their careers.

ShortsTV is owned and operated by Shorts International Ltd, headquartered in London with its US head office in Los Angeles. Since 2006, Shorts International has produced the OSCAR Nominated Short Film theatrical release, distributing it to cinemas across North America and Europe with its special global media partners. In 2008, Shorts International became one of the earliest iTunes movie partners, bringing hundreds of the world's best independent shorts to the iTunes audience, years before the iTunes Movie Store launched. The films are now available in 54 countries worldwide."

TAGS

2006Belgiumcable television • Chellomedia • commercial medium • East AfricaEuropefilm festival • film school shorts • filmmakerFrance • independent shorts • iTunes Movie Store • lean forward viewers • LondonLos AngelesLuxembourgmedia distribution • movie enthusiasts • Netherlands • NextGen Communications (Romania) • North America • Numericable (France) • Numericable Belgique • Numericable Luxembourg • professional short filmmakers • Romaniasatellite televisionshort film makershort films • Shorts International Ltd • ShortsHD • ShortsTV • Telenet (Belgium) • television channeltelevision programming • TTNet (Turkey) • Turkey • UPC Netherlands • USA • Zuku Amazing (East Africa)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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