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Which clippings match 'Ephemeral Media' keyword pg.1 of 1
30 OCTOBER 2015

Ephemeral Media: temporal programmatic recombinatory practice

"Kuleshov's insights gave voice to a temporal recombinatory practice that is older than the film medium, evident for example in nineteenth-century programming of magiclantern exhibitions, where showmen learned to build – and to rework – stories from the slides that they happened to have. But these early practices, particularly as they appeared through film's first decade or so, actually made use of recombinatory logic in a double sense. First, in the hands of film-makers such as Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith, the sequence of shots was manipulated to construct overall textual meaning (just as Kuleshov would later theorise and experimentally demonstrate). Second, the positioning of the films of Porter, Griffiths and others into full programmes (complete with lantern slides, actualités and other narratives) could itself radically transform the meanings of individual films. Here, the programmer (usually the projectionist) could, through simple manipulation of film sequence, comment upon or build different frameworks of coherence for a particular film. This metalevel of recombination was not discussed by Kuleshov and, indeed, largely took residual form in exhibition practice. But it was seized upon by television (and radio), where programmatic recombination would emerge as the economic lifeblood of the industry in the form of the rerun. And it provides one of the keys to television's distinctive deployment of ephemeral programme elements. Television's programming logics turn on a triad of organisational principles when it comes to texts, ephemeral and not: sequence, interpenetration and repetition."

(William Uricchio, 2011)

[2] Derek Kompare (2005) offers an excellent overview of this practice.

William Uricchio, "The Recurrent, the Recombinatory and the Ephemeral," in Paul Grainge, ed., Ephemeral Media: Transitory Screen Culture from Television to YouTube (London: British Film Institute / Palgrave MacMillan, 2011): 23-36 [http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/ephemeral-media-paul-grainge/?isb=9781844574353].

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TAGS

actualites • broadcast era programming • broadcast schedule • careful orchestration of programme units • changing constituency of viewers • commercial television • content recycling • contextualisationcontinuous viewing • David Wark Griffith • displaced micro-programme elements • Edwin Porter • ephemeral media • ephemeral programme elements • exhibition practice • frameworks of coherence • frequency of repetition • iconic footage • interconnect programme elements • interpenetration • interstitialsjuxtaposed imagesKuleshov Effect • larger whole • line-up • magic lantern • manipulation of film sequence • mass media • metalevel recombination • metatextNatural Born Killers • news headlines • organisational principles • paratext • Paul Grainge • persuasive logic • programmatic historical framing • programmatic recombination • programme bumpers • programme hooks • programme segments • programme units • projectionist • punctuation of programme sequence • radio • recombinatory logic • recombinatory practice • recycling of footage • recycling programmes • repetition • rerun • residual form • rework • rupture engagement • self-programmer • sequence design • sequence of shots • showmen • television and broadcasting • television programmingtemporal contiguity • temporal recombinatory practice • textual meaning • thirty-minute rotation • timed advertisements • transitory screen culture • watching television • William Uricchio • YouTube channel • YouTube segments

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
10 APRIL 2005

Television and other temporary objects

"The radio and the television were called means of communication; however, communication implies interaction between subjectivities. The radio and the television are means of information. The telephone and the internet in actual time (just text, chats, and telepresence) allow communication. Both require a partner and participation: becoming active part. Here, communication and transportation coincide: there is voice teletransportation by telephone, there is teletransportation of moving image and voice by internet.

Umberto Eco, in Kant and the Platypus talks about prostheses and mirrors. The prostheses would be extensive (they extend our senses), intrusive (they intrude into our bodies), and also magnifying (they amplify minuscule spaces and reduce huge spaces), and occasionally, deforming. The mirrors would be prostheses that do not deceive, paraspecular image: an absolute double, incapable of lying, with no indicial value; image in which type and occurrence coincide.

'Thus, and always taking into account a theoretical point of view, what appears on the television screen is not a sign of anything: it is paraspecular image that is apprehended by the observant with the belief we give to a specular image.

(...) We do not doubt the television because we know that since each prosthesis, extensive and intrusive, does not provide us with signs in a first instance, but only perceptive stimuli."

(Maria Beatriz de Medeiros)

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TAGS

communicationephemeral mediaImmanuel Kantmirror • paraspecular image • platypus • prosthesisradio • teletransportation • televisionTVUmberto Eco
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