Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'Middle Ages' keyword pg.1 of 1
30 OCTOBER 2015

Science and Islam: The Islamic Golden Age

"Physicist Jim Al-Khalili travels through Syria, Iran, Tunisia and Spain to tell the story of the great leap in scientific knowledge that took place in the Islamic world between the 8th and 14th centuries. Its legacy is tangible, with terms like algebra, algorithm and alkali all being Arabic in origin and at the very heart of modern science – there would be no modern mathematics or physics without algebra, no computers without algorithms and no chemistry without alkalis.

He discovers how medieval Islamic scholars helped turn the magical and occult practice of alchemy into modern chemistry and argues that these scholars are among the first people to insist that all scientific theories are backed up by careful experimental observation, bringing a rigour to science that didn’t really exist before."

1
2

3

TAGS

14th century2009 • 8th century • Abbasid Caliphate • Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali • Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi • Al-Farabi • Al-Khwarizmi • Al-Muallim Al-Thani • algebraalgorithm • alkali • Amira Bennison • Ancient GreekArabic scienceastronomy • Averroes • BaghdadBBC Four • Canon of Medicine • chemistry • early medicine • fundamental research • geometry • George Saliba • Greek culture • Greek geometry • Greek mathematics • history of ideashistory of scholarshiphistory of science • House of Wisdom in Baghdad • Ian Stewart • Ibn Arabi • Ibn Khaldun • Ibn Rushd • Ibn Sina • India • Indian texts • Iran • Islamic design • Islamic geometric design • Islamic Golden Age • Islamic mathematics • Islamic patterns • Islamic science • Islamic world • Jim Al-Khalili • language translation • mathematical elegance • medieval Islamic civilisation • medieval Islamic science • middle ages • Muslim territories • Nader El-Bizri • Okasha El Daly • outward-looking culture • patronage • Persian texts • personal journey • Peter Pormann • pioneering engineering • pioneering mathematics • pioneering science • progressive societyrenaissance • repeated geometrical shapes • science and Islam • Science and Islam (2009) • scientific knowledge • Simon Schaffer • SpainSyriatelevision documentary • Thabit ibn Qurrah • The Sabian • The Translation Movement • trigonometry • TunisiaTurkey

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 SEPTEMBER 2011

The Norsk Folkemuseum living history museum in Norway

"The Norsk Folkemuseum is Norway's largest museum of cultural history. With collections from around the country, the museum shows how people lived in Norway from 1500 to the present.

The more than 150 buildings in the Open–Air Museum represent different regions in Norway, different time periods, as well as differences between town and country, and social classes. The Gol Stave Church dating from 1200 is one of five medieval buildings at the museum. The contemporary history is presented through exhibitions and documentation projects focusing especially on children, youth and the multicultural population. Permanent indoor exhibitions include folk art, folk costumes, toys and Sami culture."

(Astrid Santa, Norsk Folkemuseum)

[Actors are located in some of the buildings to provide visitors with a sense of the life of the original inhabitants.]

1

TAGS

1200 • 1500 • anthropologybuilding • contemporary history • costumecultural heritagecultural historyeverydayfolkfolk art • folk costumes • folk museum • Gol Stave Church • heritagehistorical reenactment • household • indoor exhibitions • living farm museum • living history museumliving museummedieval • medieval buildings • middle ages • multicultural population • museummuseum of cultural historyNordic • Norsk Folkemuseum • Norway • Norwegian Museum of Cultural History • open-air • open-air museumOslooutdoorperiod costumeperiod lifereenactment • Sami culture • ScandinaviasettlementSimon Perkins

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
01 JANUARY 2011

New Directions in Interdisciplinarity: Broad, Deep, and Critical

"Before interdisciplinarity in either the disciplinary producing or disciplinary–circumscribing senses could manifest itself, disciplinarity itself had to take on its peculiarly modern form. Any assessment of interdisciplinarity – multi – and trans–, noncritical and critical– will benefit from an appreciation of this background.

Prior to the modern period, learning exhibited a kind of unity that might be called predisciplinary. Aristotle, it is true, introduced distinctions between logic, physics, and ethics, but these were never of a kind to raise the possibility of cross–disciplinary formations such as 'physical ethics.' During the Middle Ages, the division of the artes liberales into grammar, rhetoric, dialectic (the trivium), arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music (the quadrivium) ensured that the education of 'free men' included all the knowledge and skills needed to exercise their social roles. Insofar as it existed, disciplinary specialization was present more in the 'servile arts' of artisans and tradesmen. Not even teachers of the liberal arts became specialists in their different branches, because the idea of, for example, possessing arithmetic without grammar would have been considered a deformation of the mind. In the monastery schools, the unfettered pursuit of knowledge was viewed skeptically, criticized as curiositas, and therefore subject to disciplinization in a premodern behavioral sense. Only at the end of the Middle Ages, as the infinite pursuit of disciplinary knowledge took on the character of a spiritual activity, would Renaissance men become necessary to cross boundaries and synthesize diverse areas of learning."

(Robert Frodeman and Carl Mitcham, 2007, p.508)

[1][2] Frodeman, R. and C. Mitcham (2007). "New Directions in Interdisciplinarity: Broad, Deep, and Critical." Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 27(6).

TAGS

Aristotlearithmetic • artes liberales • artisanastronomy • cross boundaries • cross-disciplinary • curiositas • dialecticdisciplinary knowledgedisciplinary specialisationdisciplinesdiscursive fielddivisionethicsEuropean Renaissance • free men • geometrygrammarinterdisciplinarityknowledgeknowledge integrationlearningliberal artslogicmiddle agesModern • modern period • monastery schools • multidisciplinaritymusicorderingphysics • predisciplinary • premodernpursuit of knowledgeQuadriviumrhetoricservile artsskillsocial construction of knowledgesocial rolesspecialisation • spiritual activity • synthesis • tradesmen • transdisciplinarityTrivium • unity

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 JUNE 2009

A globally networked system of non-governmental actors

"'Globalization' is a term that has only recently become widespread – whereas the phenomenon that it designates can be traced back far into the past. Therefore, it was rightly emphasized by George Modelski that (political) processes of globalization had already begun in the Middle Ages (see 17). Thus, in the course of time, there came about a globally networked system of states. Today there exists alongside of and parallel with the state–centred system of international politics, which is represented by institutions like the 'United Nations', an even more powerful globally networked multi–centric system of non–governmental actors (see 18 as well as 19), for which the term 'World–Society' (20) possesses a certain justification (see also 21). However, the politics of the institutional (nation–)state lag behind especially this latest development (see 22: 179) and they therefore contribute to their own critical scrutiny and decline. That's true though it does not mean the final 'End of Nation State' (23): Even in view of efforts towards regionalisation, as in the 'European Union', the nation state has not yet been replaced as the defining structural moment of world politics (see e.g. 24 and 25).

Naturally, when speaking of globalization, we – whether euphorically or in a critical vein – most often refer to economic processes rather than the sphere of politics. Here, too, 'real' history does not begin at present but can be traced far back into the past. For already in antiquity, but especially since early modern times, there existed strong commercial relations, which reached as far as the world known at that time (see 26: ch. 2). Particularly in the era of imperialism, in the 19th century, worldwide commerce was flourishing – because the gold standard provided for security and the 'unequal exchange' (Emmanuel) between the colonies and the imperialist nations guaranteed enormous profits (see 26). It is not surprising therefore that Marx and Engels in 'The Communist Manifesto' could already in 1848 portray a picture of a highly globalized economy. Yet, the development of international trade suffered considerable setbacks – on account of the First World War, which resulted in the total breakdown of the gold standard, and then once again in the 1970s, evoked by the oil crisis. This relative level of internationalization/ globalization attained in the commercial sector at the beginning of the 20th century would only be reached again in the middle of the 1980s (see 27)."
(Anil K. Jain, Heiner Keupp, Renate Höfer, Wolfgang Kraus)

TAGS

1980sAnil Jain • Communist Manifesto • Frederick Engels • George Modelski • globalisationHeiner Keupp • internationalization • Karl Marxmiddle agesnation statenetwork societypost-traditionalsocietyUnited NationsWolfgang Kraus • World-Society

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 DECEMBER 2008

Museum Beneath a Hotel: Settlement Exhibition Reykjavik City Museum

"During the excavation works in 2001 for a hotel in the centre of Iceland's capital, the oldest proof of settlement in Reykjavik was found. The ruins of a longhouse and of a turf wall can now be visited "on site": The museum is situated in the basement of the new hotel; the longhouse's former main room is part of today's exhibition hall.

An interactive media installation presents the ruin, dated around 930 AD, the way it probably looked when occupied. The Multi–User installation resurrects the inhabitants as ghosts and shows them in their daily activities. The pater familias is welcoming a guest, servants take care of the livestock and the kitchen, the housewife is dyeing cloth, a child is playing. Museum visitors gain information by activating texts and images telling more on life in Iceland's Middle Ages. A spot light is also directed onto the relics found in the ruin. Touched by the visitor, they will show where they were located in the longhouse and explain their function. Additionally, the purpose of the building's different rooms is described."

(ART+COM)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

TAGS

2006anthropologyarchaeology • ART+COM • designdigital mediaghostshotelIcelandimmersive environmentsimmersive experience • immersive space • interactioninteractive media • longhouse • middle agesmultimediamuseumnarrativepanoramic portrayalReykjavik • Reykjavik City Museum • ruinssettlementtechnologyvignettevirtual heritagevisualisation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
Sign-In

Sign-In to Folksonomy

Can't access your account?

New to Folksonomy?

Sign-Up or learn more.