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Which clippings match '1947' keyword pg.1 of 1
09 JUNE 2013

Lady in the Lake: the dramatic effect of subjective point of view

"Robert Montgomery drehte 'Lady in the Lake' 1947 nach einem Plot, das Raymond Chandlers gleichnamigen Roman adaptierte. In diesem Spielfilm verfolgen Beobachter die Handlung aus der Perspektive des Detektivs Philip Marlowe: Personen, die sich Marlowe zuwenden und mit ihm sprechen, wenden sich der Kamera zu. Das wirkt in Filmvorführungen im Kino, als wenden sie sich in den Projektionsraum und sprechen die Zuschauer an. Der Beobachter wird zugleich ins Bildgeschehen durch die szenische Konstellation hineingezogen (Immersion), wie auf die Grenze zwischen Filmraum und Projektionsraum verwiesen, da er im Filmraum nicht selbst handeln kann, sich aber wie Marlowe im Bildraum verortet. Marlowe bleibt ein anderer, meist unsichtbarer Körper, der aber sieht und den Anschluss des Beobachters an seine Wahrnehmung einfordert: Die Kamera verleiht ihren Beobachtern einen szenischen Kontext, in den Kinozuschauer sich versetzen können. Sie stossen dabei sowohl auf Vorgaben (wie Marlowe spricht) wie auf Fehlstellen (das Sichtbare von Marlowes Auftreten, wenn er nicht in einen Spiegel schaut)."

(Thomas Dreher, IASLonline)

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TAGS

1947 • Audrey Totter • black and whitecamera anglecinematic conventionscinematic language • cinematic space • crime fictiondetective storyfilm languagefilm noirfirst-person point of viewformal conceit • hardboiled • hardboiled detective • IASLonline • immersionLady in the Lake (1947)perspective view • Philip Marlowe • point of viewPOV • Raymond Chandler • Robert Montgomery • screen space • subjective shot • subjective viewpoint • visual conceit • visual depictionvisual language

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 JULY 2009

10 standards to which physicians must conform when carrying out experiments on human subjects

"The judgment by the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg laid down 10 standards to which physicians must conform when carrying out experiments on human subjects in a new code that is now accepted worldwide.

This judgment established a new standard of ethical medical behavior for the post World War II human rights era. Amongst other requirements, this document enunciates the requirement of voluntary informed consent of the human subject. The principle of voluntary informed consent protects the right of the individual to control his own body.

This code also recognizes that the risk must be weighed against the expected benefit, and that unnecessary pain and suffering must be avoided.

This code recognizes that doctors should avoid actions that injure human patients.

The principles established by this code for medical practice now have been extened into general codes of medical ethics."
(Circumcision Reference Library, 7 December 1996)

TAGS

1947bodyconductdoctor • ethical medical behaviour • ethicshuman experimentationhuman patientshuman rightshuman rights violationhuman subjectsinjuryliabilitymedical ethicsmedical practice • Nuremberg • Nuremberg Code • Nuremberg Trialspainprotectionresponsibilitysuffering • voluntary informed consent • war crimes • war crimes tribunal • World War II

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 JULY 2009

Conducting lethal medical experiments on living human subjects

"On the 22nd July 1942, 75 prisoners from our transport that came from Lublin were called, summoned to the chief of the camp. We stood before the camp office, and present Kogel, Mandel and one person which I later recognized Dr. Fischer. We were afterwards sent back to the block and we were told to wait for further instructions. On the 25th of July, all the women from the transport of Lublin were summoned by Mendel, who told us that we were not allowed to work outside of the camp. Also, five women from the transport that came from Warsaw were summoned with us at the same time. We were not allowed to work outside the camp. The next day 75 women were summoned again and we had to stand before the hospital in the camp. Present were Schiedlauski, Oberhauser, Rosenthal, Kogel and the man in when I recognized afterwards Dr. Fischer."
(Vladislava Karolewska, 1946)

fig.1 Herta Oberheuser, physician on trial for having conducted medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners. Nuremberg Medical Trial, Germany, August 1947. NARA

Fig.2 Vladislava Karolewska, a victim of medical experiments, who appeared as a prosecution witness at the Doctors Trial. Nuremberg Medical Trial, Germany, December 22, 1946. NARA

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TAGS

19473-lens turretatrocitycommand responsibilitycrimedocumentary evidenceethicseuthanasiaexperimentation • Herta Oberheuser • human rights violationhuman subjects • lens turret • liability • medical experiments • Nazi • Nuremberg Medical Trial • Nuremberg Trialsresponsibilitysufferingwar crimesWorld War II

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
14 SEPTEMBER 2008

Dreams That Money Can Buy

"Berlin-born Hans Richter - Dadaist, painter, film theorist and filmmaker - was for four decades one of the most influential members of the cinematic avant-garde. Richter assembled some of the century's liveliest artists as co-creators of Dreams That Money Can Buy, his most ambitious attempt to bring the work of the European avant-garde to a wider cinema audience. Among its admirers is film director David Lynch.

Joe, a young man down on his luck, discovers he has the power to create dreams, and sets up a business selling them to others. The 'dreams' he gives to his clients are the creations of Max Ernst, Fernand Lger, Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, Alexander Calder and Richter himself, and the result is by turns playful, hypnotic, satirical, charming and nightmarish."

Dreams That Money Can Buy is a film in seven segments namely:
"Desire" Director, Writer - Max Ernst; "The Girl with the Prefabricated Heart" Director, Writer - Fernand Léger; "Ruth, Roses and Revolvers" Director, Writer - Man Ray; "Discs" Director, Writer - Marcel Duchamp; "Ballet" Director, Writer - Alexander Calder; "Circus" Director, Writer - Alexander Calder; "Narcissus" Director, Writer - Hans Richter.

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TAGS

1947Alexander Calderassembly lineavant-gardeBFI • bride • collection of video clipsDadadada filmDavid Lynch • Dreams That Money Can Buy • Fernand Leger • groom • Hans RichterMan RaymannequinMarcel DuchampMax Ernstsurrealist films

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
31 JANUARY 2005

CSIRAC: Early Computer Music

"In 1947, Maston Beard and Trevor Pearcey led a research group at the Sydney-based Radiophysics Laboratory of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research [known as CSIRO* today], to design and build an electronic computer. Geoff Hill was the first person to programme the CSIR Mk1 to play a musical melody. It was played publicly for the first public exhibition of the computer on the 7th to 9th of August in 1951, at the inaugural Conference of Automatic Computing Machines in Sydney."

(Paul Doornbusch, David Hornsby)

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1947Australia • Automatic Computing Machines • computercomputer historycomputer musiccomputers in music • CSIR Mk1 • CSIRAC • digital pioneers • Doornbusch • electronic music • Geoff Hill • Hornsby • Maston Beard • musicpioneerSydney • Trevor Pearcey
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