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Which clippings match 'Usable' keyword pg.1 of 1

Virtual reality is now a cereal toy

"It's sometimes hard to remember how far virtual reality has come in recent years. Not just in terms of technical achievement (though that's impressive), but also mainstream awareness. The idea of strapping a VR headset to your face is so common now, that Kellogg's is offering cardboard goggles with its breakfast cereal. A new promotion for Nutri-Grain in New Zealand lets customers construct their own headset from a cereal box, with the display provided by their smartphone. An official app offers access to a handful of 360-degree VR experiences including wingsuiting and a downhill mountain bike ride."

(James Vincent, 9 September 2015, The Verge)








360 degree view • 360-degree VR experience • advertising and promotion • advertising promotion • Aotearoa New Zealandapp • breakfast cereal • cardboard goggles • cardboard headset • cardboard virtual reality goggles • cereal • cereal box • cheap solution • folded paper design • fully-immersive • Kelloggs • mainstream awareness • mobile phone • mountain bike ride • Nutri-Grain • promotional material • QR code • smartphoneultra-low-techusablevirtual realityvirtual reality experienceVR headset • wingsuit


Simon Perkins
27 MARCH 2015

Is Universal Design a Critical Theory?

"Universal design is a term that was first used in the United States by Ron Mace (1985) although forms of it were quite prevalent in Europe long before. For the purpose of this chapter Universal Design is defined as 'the design of all products and environments to be usable by people of all ages and abilities to the greatest extent possible (Story, 2001, p.10.3). Universal design in recent years has assumed growing importance as a new paradigm that aims at a holistic approach ranging in scale from product design (Balaram, 2001) to architecture (Mace, 1985), and urban design (Steinfield, 2001) on one hand and systems of media (Goldberg, 2001) and information technology (Brewer, 2001) on the other.

Given the popularity, Universal design still remains largely atheoretical i..e. the researchers of Universal design do not explicitly affiliate themselves to any form of theoretical paradigm. One of the reason is perhaps because Universal design is a melting point between cross paradigms. By paradigms I mean basic orientations to theory and research (Newman, 1997, p.62). In this sense Universal design can come under functionalist paradigm (because it caters to utility), pragmatic (because it is instrumental in nature), positivistic (because it strives for universal principles), normative (because it prescribes certain rules) and critical theorist paradigms (because it gives voice to the oppressed).

Conventionally the word universal is synonymous to general and refers to a set of principles that are stable, timeless and value free. In this sense universal design could be interpreted as deriving from a positivist paradigm. However, given its history and perspective, and with the universal design examples I provide, I will demonstrate several instances where the universals do change, are time bound and value laden. In this sense I argue that Universal design follows a critical theory paradigm in its conception and knowledge generation. By conception I mean how universal design came into being as a body of concepts and by knowledge generation I mean how the concepts pervade and are shared by the community of researchers."

(Newton D'Souza, 2004)

D’souza, N.: 2004, Chapter 1: "Is Universal Design a Critical Theory?" Keates, S., Clarkson, J., Langdon, P., Robinson, P. (eds.) Designing a more Inclusive World. Springer - Verlog, pp: 3-10, 5th University of Cambridge, UK.


2004 • all abilities • atheoretical • basic orientations to theory and research • critical theory • cross paradigms • defined rules • designing for usability • Edward Steinfeld • functional purpose • functional utility • functionalist paradigmholistic approachinclusive design • instrumental in nature • Judy Brewer • Larry Goldberg • Molly Story • Newton DSouza • normativepositivism • positivist paradigm • positivistic • pragmatic considerationsproduct design • Ron Mace • Singanapalli Balaram • theoretical context • theoretical paradigm • universal accessuniversal designuniversal principlesusable


Simon Perkins

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