"The advancement of internet technologies and the rapid rise of virtual communities have instigated internet human flesh search (HFS) or cyber manhunt in western countries   that it has become a cyber phenomenon. HFS originated in China. The term was translated from 人肉搜尋 (Ren Rou Sou Suo ) which broadly refers to “an act of searching information about individuals or any subjects through the online collaboration of multiple users” .
Participation and collaboration by users play a vital role in the HFS process. On one hand, HFS practices, which are considered a manifestation of citizen empowerment and civil participation, are supported and applauded by other countries. On the other, majority of high-profile HFS cases in China have become aggressive and vicious, arousing research interest on the involved legal , privacy , and social issues .
Although Chen and Sharma  provide a comprehensive review of HFS that is supplemented by Chao , there is still a gap in research and in the analysis of HFS on a global context. The Taiwanese context is worthy of review because despite the abundance of HFS incidents occurring in the country, few studies on those have been shared to the international community."
(Yu-Hui Tao, Chian-Hsueng Chao, 2011)
Tao, Y.-H. and Chao, C.-S., Analysis of human flesh search in the Taiwanese context, in proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications, December 16-18, Shenzhen, China, 2011
"This article studies an interesting Internet phenomenon known as Human Flesh Search which illustrates the far-reaching impacts of the Internet that is less documented. Due to its huge threat on individual privacy, human flesh search has introduced huge controversy and invited heated debate in China. This paper reviews its growth, explores the impetuses, identifies the distinctions from the alternative search engines, and summarizes the benefits and drawbacks. Furthermore, the paper develops a systematic review of the prior literature in human flesh search by surveying major sources such as academic journals, national and international conferences, and public and private databases. Finally, the paper identifies five research gaps in the literature and offers an initial interpretation and analysis of these remaining research issues. Human flesh search is still growing and the current study helps the computing field learn the past and present of this emerging phenomenon and properly manage its future development."
(Rui Chen and Sushil Sharma, 2011)
Rui Chen and Sushil Sharma (2011). Journal of Information Privacy and Security, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2011, pages 50-71.
"A father has spoken of his ordeal after being wrongly named as a paedophile on Facebook by a disgruntled neighbour. Luke Chatfield was forced to leave his job, abused in the street and had a panic alarm installed at his home in Sale, Greater Manchester. The father–of–three said his neighbour, Sally Pepper, posted the 'evil lies' due to a dispute about her loud music. A police spokesman said Ms Pepper was fined £80 for sending false messages likely to cause distress. Ms Pepper posted the message on a Facebook vigilante site for sex offenders, which has since been removed. She wrote: 'I know another one, Luke Chatfield, he works in BBs cafe, Stretford Arndale.' Another user then responded with: 'Anyone know his house number?' Mr Chatfield only found out when someone told him about it at work."
(BBC News, 18 February 2010)
"Since Friday, at least five groups on social networking site Facebook had attracted about 3500 people, with most users either threatening or inciting violence towards the accused [Brendan Sokaluk].
The messages were posted on Facebook groups which named Sokaluk over the three days his name was suppressed from publication by court order.
Liberty Victoria president Michael Pearce, SC, said internet users who had posted such messages were putting themselves in danger and jeopardising the accused's right to a fair trial.
'It's the cyber–world equivalent of angry mobs forming outside court, hurling abuse,' he said. 'There is a clear risk that these people are going to imperil a fair trial for the accused and also that they are in contempt of court.'
The suppression order on Sokaluk's name was lifted yesterday, but his image and address remained suppressed.
Despite this, the accused's photograph, seemingly lifted from his own, private Facebook account, was circulating on the internet last night.
Identifying details of his former girlfriend were also published. His public MySpace page was removed from the internet yesterday."
(Selma Milovanovic, theage.com.au, 17 February 2009)
"The identity of the 27–year–old mother of Baby P was last night being circulated on the internet with the names of her boyfriend and the third man convicted of causing the child's death, after online vigilantes began a campaign calling for violent retribution against them.
Facebook shut down pages carrying threats and abusive comments about the mother after thousands of users subscribed to groups carrying the names of the couple and Jason Owen, 36, who were convicted at the Old Bailey this week of causing the 17–month–old boy's horrific death. The judge's order allows Owen's identity to be made public.
One Facebook group was entitled 'Death is too good for [the mother's name], torture the bitch that killed Baby P'. Another that carried the name said 'Baby P killers should be hanged Drawn and Quartered'. The page contained graphic threats of violence and the addresses of the three.
Facebook said that although many of the comments on the chat groups it hosted reflected conversations taking place 'from the House of Commons to the man on the street', it was making sure that comments breaking the court order and its own rules were removed.
Another social networking site, Bebo, removed the mother's profile page after abusive messages were posted, while her Friends Reunited profile was also being circulated.
The difficulties of policing the internet were highlighted when the mother's name briefly appeared in a discussion thread about Baby P hosted by The Sun. The information was removed.
Mark Stephens, of the Internet Watch Foundation, said: 'There is a ... problem with trying to enforce court orders that apply to the UK ... We either need to develop more sophisticated ways of dealing with this kind of information when it is posted or we decide to recognise the permeability of information once it reaches the internet.'"
(Cahal Milmo, Saturday, 15 November 2008, The Independent)