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15 JANUARY 2010

The Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines

"In the Philippines, the term 'indigenous peoples' is legally defined by Republic Act No. 8371, otherwise known as the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997. IPRA defined 'indigenous peoples' (IPs) or 'indigenous cultural communities' (ICCs) as:

A group of people or homogenous societies identified by self–ascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived as organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have, under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized such territories, sharing common bonds of language, customs, traditions and other distinctive cultural traits, or who have, through resistance to political, social and cultural inroads of colonization, nonindigenous regions and cultures, became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos. ICCs/IPs shall likewise include peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country at the time of conquest or colonization, or at the time of inroads of non–indigenous religions and cultures, or the establishment if present state boundaries, who retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains (IPRA, Section 3h)."

(Nestor T. Castro)

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1997ancestral domainsAsiaAsianbelongingcolonialismculturescustomsethnographic researchethnography • Filipinos • historically differentiated • homogeneous societies • ICC • identity • IFSSO • Indigenous • indigenous cultural communities • Indigenous peopleindigenous peoples • Indigenous Peoples Rights Act • International Federation of Social Science Organisations • IPRA • language • non-indigenous • Pacific Rim • peoples • Philippines • self-ascription • settlementsocietySouth East Asianterritorytraditional domainstraditions

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 JULY 2009

Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins

"Lake Mungo 3 is the oldest (Pleistocene) 'anatomically modern' human from whom DNA has been recovered. His mtDNA belonged to a lineage that only survives as a segment inserted into chromosome 11 of the nuclear genome, which is now widespread among human populations. This lineage probably diverged before the most recent common ancestor of contemporary human mitochondrial genomes. This timing of divergence implies that the deepest known mtDNA lineage from an anatomically modern human occurred in Australia; analysis restricted to living humans places the deepest branches in East Africa. The other ancient Australian individuals we examined have mtDNA sequences descended from the most recent common ancestor of living humans. Our results indicate that anatomically modern humans were present in Australia before the complete fixation of the mtDNA lineage now found in all living people. Sequences from additional ancient humans may further challenge current concepts of modern human origins."

(Gregory Adcock, Elizabeth Dennis, Simon Easteal, Gavin Huttley, Lars Jermiin, William Peacock and Alan Thorne)

Adcock, G. J., E. S. Dennis, et al. (2001). "Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins." Archaeology in Oceania 36(3): 163-163.

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19742001Aboriginal AustraliansAfrica • Alan Thorne • alternative explanation • anatomically modern human • ancient DNA • ancient humans • ancient peoplearchaeology • Archaeology in Oceania • AsiaAustraliaAustralian National University • bone fragments • burial ritual • cell biologychromosome • common ancestor • cremated remains • divergence • divergent selection • divergent variation • DNAEast Africa • Elizabeth Dennis • emergence of modern humans • Europe • evolutionary lineage • evolutionary process • evolutionary theoryevolutionary tree • female skeleton • fixation • fossil evidence • fossil specimen • Gavin Huttley • genetic lineage • genetic pool • genetic relationship • genetic sequence • genome • genotyping analysis • Gregory Adcock • Homo erectus • Homo sapiens • human evolutionhuman history • human populations • human speciesIndiaIndigenous Australians • Lake Mungo • Lars Jermiin • living humans • Mamanwa people • mitochondria • mitochondrial genome • modern human origins • mtDNA lineage • multiregional evolution • multiregional explanation • multiregional origin of modern humans hypothesis • Mungo Lady • Mungo Man • New South Walesochre • origin of modern humans • out-of-Africa hypothesis • Papua New GuineaPeoples Republic of China • pleistocene • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) • Simon Easteal • simultaneous development • skeletal remains • skeletonSouth East Asianspeciation • subspecies • William Peacock

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 JUNE 2009

Lapita people: Pacific migrations

"Around 1500 BC a culture known as Lapita (ancestors of the Polynesians, including Māori) appeared in the Bismarck Archipelago in Near Oceania. Recent DNA analysis suggests that they originally came from Island South–East Asia, and that there was some interbreeding with people already living in the Bismarcks. Archaeological sites in the Moluccas in Indonesia are the closest forerunners to Lapita sites.

The pottery of the Lapita people was similar in form to that of their forebears, but their decorative style was an innovation that emerged in the Bismarcks. The design included stylised faces, which were most elaborate during the early years of the migration and clearly carried cultural significance. This unique style was one of several traits referred to as the 'Lapita cultural complex'."
(Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

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TAGS

Aotearoa New Zealand • Bismarck Archipelago • IndigenousIndonesia • Lapita • Lapita peopleMaorimigrationOceaniaPacificPacific IslanderPacific Rim • Polynesia • PolynesiansettlementSouth East AsianSoutheast Asia

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
16 NOVEMBER 2008

FOB Mixtape

In April 2008, FOB Mixtape brought their music to the Australian public in their first live show at Federation Square in Melbourne. Armed with 'music with a difference' but a modest budget, FOB Mixtape used the social networking website, MySpace to garner support and interest in their show. The band members created a promotional video and viral marketing: digital promotional strategies that are increasingly used by emerging and established artists to engage instantly with large audiences, without huge overheads. FOB Mixtape is an Australian hiphop group with a social conscience and their music aims to challenge racial stereotypes of Asian migrants in Australia. FOB Mixtape draw on their experiences as second generation migrants to write humorous lyrics such as 'I ain't the type of guy that you're used to seeing, the human being that's a few between a gook and a European'. The group takes a tongue and cheek look at the plight of being labelled an 'Asian' in Australia today, as seen in the group's name FOB Mixtape or 'Fresh Off the Boat'', which is immigrant slang used to describe newly arrived migrants. Recently featured on the SBS series mY Generation, FOB Mixtape can be seen as typical of Generation Y's expressing themselves through digitally sampled music, their ease with using online marketing – all of which was created in the basement of one of their parent's home. This experience of FOB Mixtape is an example of a new form of civic engagement that uses everyday, digital technologies to address some of the racial intolerances that exist in the culturally diverse societies of Australia today.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Mia Thornton
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