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Which clippings match 'Cut And Paste' keyword pg.1 of 1
03 JANUARY 2014

Interface functions: conceptually similar operationally different

"I am going to argue that 'media independence' does not just happen by itself. For a technique to work with various data types, programmers have to implement a different method for each data type. Thus, media–independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types. Let us look at some examples.

Consider the omnipresent cut and paste. The algorithm to select a word in a text document is different from the algorithm to select a curve in a vector drawing, or the algorithm to select a part of a continuous tone (i.e. raster) image. In other words, 'cut and paste' is a general concept that is implemented differently in different media software depending on which data type this software is designed to handle. (In Larry Tesler's original implementation of the universal commands concept done at PARC in 1974–5, it only worked for text editing.) Although cut, copy, paste, and a number of similar 'universal commands' are available in all contemporary GUI applications for desktop computers (but not necessarily in mobile phone apps), what they actually do and how they do it is different from application to application.

Search operates in the same way. The algorithm to search for a particular phrase in a text document is different than the algorithm that searches for a particular face in a photo or a video clip. (I am talking here about 'content–based search,' i.e. the type of search which looks for information inside actual images, as opposed to only searching image titles and other metadata the way image search engines such as Google Image Search were doing it in the 2000s.) However, despite these differences the general concept of search is the same: locating any elements of a single media object–or any media objects in a larger set–to match particular user–defined criteria. Thus we can ask the web browser to locate all instances of a particular word in a current web page; we can ask a web search engine to locate all web pages which contain a set of keywords; and we can ask a content–based image search engine to find all images that are similar in composition to an image we provided. ...

Against these historical developments, the innovation of media software clearly stands. They bring a new set of techniques which are implemented to work across all media. Searchability, findability, linkability, multimedia messaging and sharing, editing, view control, zoom and other 'mediaindependent' techniques are viruses that infect everything software touches–and therefore in their importance they can be compared to the basic organizing principles for media and artifacts which were used for thousands of years."

(Lev Manovich, 2013, pp.113–124)

Manovich, L. (2013). "Software Takes Command", Continuum.

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TAGS

1974algorithm • black box model • black box system • black box theory • content-based • content-based search • continuous tone • cut and pastedata typesdesktop computer • findability • general concepts • Google Image Search • GUI applications • high-level designimage identificationimage searchimage search engine • implemented differently • keyword search • Larry Tesler • Lev Manovich • linkability • low-level implementation • media independence • media production • media software • media-independent techniques • media-independent techniques from different implementations • metadata • polymorphism • raster imagesearch algorithmsearch engine • search phrase • search toolsearchabilitytechnology affordances • text document • text editing • text selection • TinEye • universal commands • vector graphicvisual searchweb search engineweb searchingXerox PARC

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 APRIL 2013

CHARACTERIZED 2013: live character design tournament

CHARACTERIZED Kuala Lumpur 2013, Tuesday 30 April 2013, 7:00pm, MAPKL, Black Box–Publika, Dutamas, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

"Over the past few decades, Malaysia has been bearing a rapidly fast changing landscape within the creative industries. As Malaysia establishes its national creative policy to be at sync with the heartbeat of the emerging global creative economy – there has been nationwide expansion of creative establishments, particularly in graphic design, motion, product and web design. From here numerous surfacing of young budding talents and self initiated art collectives – all adhere with a single aspiration – and that is to create a vibrant and energetic design scene that is not only modern but also infused with a rich cultural heritage."

(Cut&Paste)

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TAGS

2005Bangkokcharacter design • character-drawing • Characterised (event) • Chicagocompetitive challenges • competitive showcase • competitive teamscreative companiescreative industriescut and pastedesign competition • design contest • design events • design industry partners • design scene • design-driven contest • designersdigital design • digital design tournament • emerging designers • global creative economy • Kuala Lumpurlive eventLondonLos AngelesMalaysiaMiami • national creative policy • New YorkNew York CitySeoulSingapore • tournament • vibrant and energetic

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
28 NOVEMBER 2010

How to Lie with Design Research

"Dan Saffer, author of "Designing for Interaction", gives a tongue–in–cheek talk about the misleading ways certain design researchers present their findings."

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2008authenticitycut and paste • Dan Saffer • designdesign researchfictionhumourinterviewirreverenceobjectivityre-enactmentresearch • researchization • researchizing • scientific researchsteal from anywherethieverytongue-in-cheektruth • URF 08 • User Research Friday
16 NOVEMBER 2008

Peter Kennard: photomontage activist

"Peter Kennard has spent most of his life in London, and has been considerably more involved than most in the capital's political gatherings during the last 25 years.
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His two major subjects quickly emerged: armaments and poverty. This was the early eighties with 3 million unemployed, Thatcher in her first term girding her loins for the Falklands War, and the CND at the height of its popularity. Kennard had an audience.
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'The point of my work is to use easily accessible iconic images, but to render them unacceptable. To break down the image of the all–powerful missile....after breaking them, to show new possibilities emerging in the cracks and splintered fragments of the old reality.'

His belief at this time was that photomontage had the power to show the causes rather than the results. In recent times however, he seems to have had his doubts: 'There is a problem with montage in that you see it everywhere now because of digital technology. There is so much transformed imagery around that people accept constructed images without questioning their meaning. I think my work was losing impact because of that.'"
(David Palmer)

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TAGS

activismart • CND • culture jammingcut and paste • Falklands War • guerrilla tacticsMargaret Thatcherparody • Peter Kennard • photographyphotomontagepolitical satirepoliticspropagandare-purposeridiculetacticTony BlairUK

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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