Bush: 2004 State of the Union Remix; Obama State Of The Union remix; OBAMA State of the Union Address 2014 - (PARODY); Palin's Breath; Donald Trump's sniffling and heavy breathing; David Cameron's Conservative Party Conference Speech 2012 [Disrupted]; Nigel Farage and Independence day SPOOF!; Cassetteboy vs The News; Cassetteboy vs The Bloody Apprentice; Jeremy Corbyn's nuclear u-turn and David Cameron's approach to poverty | Cassetteboy remix the news; The Queen responds to Brexit | BREAKING.
"Universal design is a term that was first used in the United States by Ron Mace (1985) although forms of it were quite prevalent in Europe long before. For the purpose of this chapter Universal Design is defined as 'the design of all products and environments to be usable by people of all ages and abilities to the greatest extent possible (Story, 2001, p.10.3). Universal design in recent years has assumed growing importance as a new paradigm that aims at a holistic approach ranging in scale from product design (Balaram, 2001) to architecture (Mace, 1985), and urban design (Steinfield, 2001) on one hand and systems of media (Goldberg, 2001) and information technology (Brewer, 2001) on the other.
Given the popularity, Universal design still remains largely atheoretical i..e. the researchers of Universal design do not explicitly affiliate themselves to any form of theoretical paradigm. One of the reason is perhaps because Universal design is a melting point between cross paradigms. By paradigms I mean basic orientations to theory and research (Newman, 1997, p.62). In this sense Universal design can come under functionalist paradigm (because it caters to utility), pragmatic (because it is instrumental in nature), positivistic (because it strives for universal principles), normative (because it prescribes certain rules) and critical theorist paradigms (because it gives voice to the oppressed).
Conventionally the word universal is synonymous to general and refers to a set of principles that are stable, timeless and value free. In this sense universal design could be interpreted as deriving from a positivist paradigm. However, given its history and perspective, and with the universal design examples I provide, I will demonstrate several instances where the universals do change, are time bound and value laden. In this sense I argue that Universal design follows a critical theory paradigm in its conception and knowledge generation. By conception I mean how universal design came into being as a body of concepts and by knowledge generation I mean how the concepts pervade and are shared by the community of researchers."
(Newton D'Souza, 2004)
D’souza, N.: 2004, Chapter 1: "Is Universal Design a Critical Theory?" Keates, S., Clarkson, J., Langdon, P., Robinson, P. (eds.) Designing a more Inclusive World. Springer - Verlog, pp: 3-10, 5th University of Cambridge, UK.
"From ancient times to the present 'spectacle' (the visual aspects of human performance–architecture, scenery, costumes, makeup, lighting, special effects, and staging) has been used to expressively embody and evoke meaning in rituals, ceremonies, and artistic performances. This course [Eye Appeal: Spectacle on Stage and in Life at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro] will examine the use of spectacle as an expressive mode of communication in human performance from antiquity to the present."
(Bob Hansen, 2004)
"One of the simplest ways to conceptualize the becomingness of liminal space in media is to think of the virtual. In his essay 'The Reality of the Virtual,' Slavoj Žižek addresses Gilles Deleuze's notion of the virtual as 'pure becoming without being,' which is ''always forthcoming an already past,'' but is never present or corporeal. The virtual is a liminal space that consists only of its becomingness–state, and not an actual being or object to become. It exists as pure becoming that suspends both 'sequentiality and directionality'; it is a passage, but there is no line of passage."
(Allison Wright, The Chicago School of Media Theory)
"Many critics see the electronic age as heralding the end of books. I think this view is mistaken. Books are far too robust, reliable, long–lived, and versatile to be rendered obsolete by digital media. Rather, digital media have given us an opportunity we have not had for the last several hundred years: the chance to see print with new eyes and, with that chance, the possibility of understanding how deeply literary theory and criticism have been imbued with assumptions specific to print. As we continue to work toward critical practices and theories appropriate for electronic literature, we may come to renewed appreciation for the specificity of print. In the tangled web of medial ecology, change anywhere in the system stimulates change everywhere in the system. Books are not going the way of the dinosaur but the way of the human, changing as we change, mutating and evolving in ways that will continue, as a book lover said long ago, to teach and delight."
(Katherine Hayles, 2004)
Katherine Hayles (2004). "Print is Flat, Code is Deep: The Importance of Media–Specific Analysis" Poetics Today, Volume 25, Number 1, Spring 2004, pp. 67–90.