"The social demassification of newspapers–targeting an audience of one–is made possible by physical demassification, and it is no less problematic. The immutability and mobility of print on paper across a society (ensuring that the 'same' news is available to everyone at roughly the same time) turns items into 'social facts'–common to a broad readership, not merely selected by individuals. If news items were gathered individually out of a vast data base, even if the resulting copy looked like a conventional newspaper, imitating its fold and front page headlines, it would lack the social significance that arises from editorial juxtaposition. A senator is disturbed to find his or her scandalous behavior splashed across the front page not because the story is news to him or her, but because it has become front–page news to 100,000 other people. The newspaper is essentially, as Anderson (1991) described it, a 'one–day best seller' (p. 35)–and, as with a best seller, the point is that 'everyone' is reading it. The personally tailored, genuinely unique 'newspaper' selected privately from a data base–the ultimate outcome of the social and physical demassification of the newspaper as we now know it–offers neither physical, nor social continuity. Each individual output would be no more than that–an individual output. The juxtaposition of the senator and the pork bellies would then be not a composite, if oblique, social fact, but merely a result of personal serendipity."
(John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid, p.24–25)
1). 'Lionel Luthor Reading Newspaper'
2). Brown, J. S. and P. Duguid (1994). "Borderline Issues: Social and Material Aspects of Design." Human–Computer Interaction 9: pp. 3–36.
"In a sense the [university] library has become the poster child for the impact of IT on higher education. Beyond the use of digital technology for organizing, cataloguing, and distributing library holdings, the increasing availability of digitally–created materials and the massive digitization of existing holdings is driving massive change in the library strategies of universities. Although most universities continue to build libraries, many are no longer planning them as repositories (since books are increasingly placed in off–campus retrievable high–density storage facilities) but rather as a knowledge commons where users access digital knowledge on remote servers. The most common characteristic of these new libraries is a coffee shop. They are being designed as a community center where students come to study and learn together, but where books are largely absent. The library is becoming a people place, providing the tools to support learning and scholarship and the environment for social interaction."
(James J. Duderstadt, Wm. A. Wulf & Robert Zemsky, 2005)
Duderstadt, J. J., W. A. Wulf, et al. (2005). "Envisioning a Transformed University." Issues in Science and Technology (Fall 2005).
Fig.1 Phase II development of the Management and Economics Library at Purdue University
"'.epub' is the file extension of an XML format for reflowable digital books and publications. '.epub' is composed of three open standards, the Open Publication Structure (OPS), Open Packaging Format (OPF) and Open Container Format (OCF), produced by the IDPF. 'EPUB' allows publishers to produce and send a single digital publication file through distribution and offers consumers interoperability between software/hardware for unencrypted reflowable digital books and other publications. The Open eBook Publication Structure or 'OEB', originally produced in 1999, is the precursor to OPS."
(International Digital Publishing Forum)
"At the beginning of the 21st century, the World Wide Web changed the business and information distribution model for all media.
No longer were printing presses and transmission towers the only means of communication. A laptop and a broadband hookup did the same work, thank–you.
Journalists for a day, a weekend, or a cause began to supplant journalists at desks, with their pensions and a boss.
The audience formerly known as newspaper readers and television viewers awoke to the freedom of connectivity in a digital age. Virtual communities and international communities of interest transcended geographic communities and the sense of place.
In a flash, media expectations, models and roles all changed."
(Chris Peck, Peggy Holman, and Stephen Silha, 30 April 2008, Journalism that Matters)
Fig.1 Sherrin Bennett (2008) 'Value Network Maps: The Old News Story', Journalism that Matters.
Fig.2 Sherrin Bennett (2008) 'Value Network Maps: An Emerging News Ecology', Journalism that Matters.
"This document has been created to help people understand the radical transformation digital content will have on the creative industries, and to provide businesses with outline areas of opportunity where innovation is most likely to occur.
In the past decade, digital content has become a part of everyday life for all. Yet the changes that will occur in the next 5–10 years will be profound. They have the power to alter the way we live, work, play, learn and help us to live longer, more fulfilling lives. These changes will substantially alter existing business models and markets.
Many historical innovations such as new recording formats, more powerful consoles and new advertising media were incremental. They changed formats and created new opportunities, but they did not alter the industrial landscape. The changes taking place now are paradigm shifts that challenge the value chain as a whole.
These changes represent huge opportunities, or threats if not understood. For games designers, it may mean the migration from console platforms to cloud based applications and casual gaming communities. For TV programmes it may mean the end of broadcast, where their content must be found and consumed on numerous devices. For publishers it may mean the migration to new consumption platforms that radically alter distribution channels. For industrial designers, it may mean the need to move from object creation to experience creation. For all it means the need to radically shift their thinking.
The following pages outline the key areas highlighted by a project that has engaged with hundreds of key stakeholders across the creative industries and technology industries seeking to map the landscape of the future of digital content."
(Kelechi Amadi, March 2010)