"Sketches are obviously pictorial, for they refer to shape and orientation, and often to approximate size even if they maintain a varying degree of abstractness. Yet it is impossible to confirm that there is a direct one–to–one correspondence between shapes and figures on paper and the images they stand for. It is therefore proposed to refer to the (pictorial) reasoning evident in interactive imagery at the time of sketching as consisting of two modalities. The designer is 'seeing as' when he or she is using figural, or 'gestalt' argumentation while 'sketch–thinking'. When 'seeing that', the designer advances no figural arguments pertaining to the entity that is being designed. The process of sketching is a systematic dialectics between the 'seeing as' and 'seeing that' reasoning modalities. To examine this proposition, design moves and arguments were inspected as they are established through protocol analysis. The notion of 'seeing as' and 'seeing that' will be further elucidated as we proceed, so as to best exploit documentation from the protocols."
(Gabriela Goldschmidt 1991, p.131)
Goldschmidt, G. (1991). "The dialectics of sketching." Creativity Research Journal, Routledge 4(2): 123–143.
Fig.1 Donald Owen Colley [http://buttnekkiddoodles.com/2012/12/26/knockin–about–chicago/]
"Austin Kleon's talk 'Steal Like An Artist' is a creative manifesto based on 10 things he wish he'd heard when he was starting out. Austin is a writer and artist. He's the author of Newspaper Blackout, a best–selling book of poetry made by redacting newspaper articles with a permanent marker. Austin's talk was delivered as part of the TEDxKC presentation of TEDxChange. Austin's work (including his new book) 'Steal Like An Artist' has been featured on NPR's Morning Edition, PBS Newshour, and in The Wall Street Journal. He speaks about creativity, visual thinking, and being an artist online for organizations such as SXSW and The Economist."
(TEDx Talk, 2012, Kansas City)
"Games come naturally to human beings. Playing a game is a way of exploring the world, a form of structured play, a natural learning activity that's deeply tied to growth. Games can be fun and entertaining, but games can have practical benefits too.
This blog is about games designed to help you get more innovative, creative results in your work. We'll show you not only how to play them but how to design them so they fit your own specific work goals."
(Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo)
Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo (2010). 'Gamestorming: A Playbook for Innovators, Rulebreakers, and Changemakers', O'Reilly Media
"Wileman (1993) defines visual literacy as 'the ability to 'read,' interpret, and understand information presented in pictorial or graphic images' (p. 114). Associated with visual literacy is visual thinking, described as 'the ability to turn information of all types into pictures, graphics, or forms that help communicate the information' (Wileman, p. 114). A similar definition for visual literacy is 'the learned ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages' (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1999, p. 64). The ERIC definition of visual literacy is 'a group of competencies that allows humans to discriminate and interpret the visible action, objects, and/or symbols, natural or constructed, that they encounter in the environment' (http://searcheric.org/). Robinson (as quoted in Sinatra, 1986) describes visual literacy as 'an organizing force in promoting understanding, retention, and recall of so many academic concepts with which students must contend' (p. v). And lastly, Sinatra defines visual literacy as 'the active reconstruction of past visual experience with incoming visual messages to obtain meaning' (p. 5), with the emphasis on the action by the learner to create recognition.
The use and interpretation of images is a specific language in the sense that images are used to communicate messages that must be decoded in order to have meaning (Branton, 1999; Emery & Flood, 1998). If visual literacy is regarded as a language, then there is a need to know how to communicate using this language, which includes being alert to visual messages and critically reading or viewing images as the language of the messages. Visual literacy, like language literacy, is culturally specific although there are universal symbols or visual images that are globally understood."
(Suzanne Stokes, 2002)
 The Occasional Wife
 Stokes, S. (2002). "Visual literacy in teaching and learning: A literature perspective." Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education 1(1).
Branton, B. (1999). Visual literacy literature review. Retrieved December 26, 2001, from http://vicu.utoronto.ca/staff/branton/litreview.html
Emery, L., & Flood, A. (1998). Visual literacy. Retrieved September 22, 1999, from University of Canberra, Australian Centre for Arts Education Web site: http://education.canberra.edu.au/centres/acae/literacy/litpapers/vislit.htm
Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. D., & Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional media and technologies for learning (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice–Hall.
Sinatra, R. (1986). Visual literacy connections to thinking, reading and writing. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Wileman, R. E. (1993). Visual communicating. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications.
"Tracey invites artists, designers, students, educators and researchers to respond. Responses may take the form of drawings or other visual material (with or without accompanying text) or previously unpublished articles or research papers. There's no limit on the number of images or the length of text, though all contributions are subject to editorial control, in consultation with our external advisers. For guidance on preparing a submission, see below: 'guidelines for written submissions' and 'how to submit'. "
(Phil Sawdon, Loughborough University)