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Which clippings match 'Norbert Wiener' keyword pg.1 of 1
15 SEPTEMBER 2014

Paul Pangaro: What is cybernetics?

"Cybernetics as a process operating in nature has been around for a long time ... as a concept in society has been around at least since Plato used it to refer to government.

In modern times, the term became widespread because Norbert Wiener wrote a book called 'Cybernetics' in 1948. His sub–title was 'control and communication in the animal and machine'. This was important because it connects control (a.k.a., actions taken in hope of achieving goals) with communication (a.k.a., connection and information flow between the actor and the environment). So, Wiener is pointing out that effective action requires communication.

Wiener's sub–title also states that both animals (biological systems) and machines (non–biological or 'artificial' systems) can operate according to cybernetic principles. This was an explicit recognition that both living and non–living systems can have purpose. A scary idea in 1948."

(Paul Pangaro)

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TAGS

1948 • achieving goals • animal and machine • biological systems • complex human goals • control and communication • cybernetic principles • cybernetics • effective action • goal-directed systems • goals • Heinz von Foerster • human perception • living systems • man machine • navigator • non-biological artificial systems • non-biological systems • non-living systems • Norbert Wiener • Paul Pangaro • Plato • steering • systems that embody goals • taking action

CONTRIBUTOR

Liam Birtles
16 MARCH 2014

Deleuze Guattari: Societies of Control and Antipsychiatry

"if the energetic machine expressed the disciplinary bourgeoise society of the 18th and 19th centuries, computers, electronic and cybernetic machines express what Deleuze calls the 'society of control.'"

(Jeremy Jae, 2012)

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TAGS

2012anti-capitalismbourgeoise societycapital accumulationcapital flowscapitalismcontrolcultural relativismculture industry • cybernetic feedback • cybernetic machines • digital technologiesexclusionFelix Guattari • fraying • Gilles Deleuzeglobal communities • global networked society • globalisation • human social relations • inclusionJacques Derrida • Jeremy Jae • mass culture • narcissistic necrosis • networked societynew mediaNorbert Wienerrhizome • sameness • smooth spacesocial space • societies of control • society of control • subjectification • technocratic neo-capitalism • technologically manufactured culture • Theodor Adorno • worldwide circulation of electronic information

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 JANUARY 2004

Virtual Reality: Computer Science Pioneers

Grau. p.161–186 Virtual Art
Milstones: an incomplete history:
1945 – Vannevar Bush: As We May Think;
1948 – Norbert Wiener;
1950 – Alan Turing;
1960 – J. C. R. Licklider: Symbiosis;.
1963 – Ivan E. Sutherland (supervised by Claude Shannon): Sketchpad;
1963 – Ivan E. Sutherland: ultimate computer display;
1966 – Ivan E. Sutherland (with student Bob Sproull): head–mounted display;
1968 – Ivan E. Sutherland: computer–aided head–mounted display;
1970 – Myron Krueger: interactive computer images;
1970 – Nicolas Negroponte: declared goal to combine visual capabilities of film with computer processing;
1972 – Nicolas Negroponte: The Architecture Machine;
mid 1970's – Ivan E. Sutherland, Tom Furness, Scott Fisher: stereo optical apparatus;
1976 – MIT Arichecture Machine Group: spatial/hierarchical, distribution of data;
1980's – Xerox PARC: graphical user interface/desktop metaphor;
1982 – Thomas Zimmerman: data glove;
1988 – Scott Fisher, Elisabeth Wenzel: spatiovirtual sound.

TAGS

Alan Turing • Bob Sproull • Claude Shannoncomputer science • data glove • Elisabeth Wenzel • hierarchical • HMD • Ivan Sutherland • Joseph Licklider • Myron Krueger • Nicolas Negroponte • Norbert Wienerpioneers in computer scienceScott Fisher • spatiovirtual sound • Thomas Zimmerman • Tom Furness • Vannevar Bushvirtualvirtual reality
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