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28 JANUARY 2014

Montage theory: the Battleship Potemkin Odessa Steps scene

"Montage––juxtaposing images by editing––is unique to film (and now video). During the 1920s, the pioneering Russian film directors and theorists Sergei Eisenstein and Dziga Vertov demonstrated the technical, aesthetic, and ideological potentials of montage. The 'new media' theorist Lev Manovich has pointed out how much these experiments of the 1920s underlie the aesthetics of contemporary video.

Eisenstein believed that film montage could create ideas or have an impact beyond the individual images. Two or more images edited together create a 'tertium quid' (third thing) that makes the whole greater than the sum of its individual parts.

Eisenstein's greatest demonstration of the power of montage comes in the 'Odessa Steps' sequence of his 1925 film Battleship Potemkin. On the simplest level, montage allows Eisenstein to manipulate the audience's perception of time by stretching out the crowd's flight down the steps for seven minutes, several times longer than it would take in real time"

(Glen Johnson)

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TAGS

1920s1925 • audience perception • Battleship Potemkin (1925)cinematic visual languagecontinuity editing • cross cutting • crowdDziga Vertovediting technique • film aesthetics • film montage • film sequence • ideological potential • juxtapositionLev Manovichmontagemontage theory • narrative design • Odessa Steps • parallel action • parallel cut • parallel editing • parallel textsequence designSergei Eisensteinshot reverse shotstaircasestairwaysteps • tertium quid • third thing • whole is greater than the sum of the parts

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
13 OCTOBER 2008

The Steps of Freemasonry

"American Freemasonry resembles two sets of stairs that begin and end together, as the enlarged chart of Masonic structure shows. A Mason's first step is to become an Entered Apprentice. He climbs to the third step where most Masons stay. If he wants to go on in Masonic heirarchy, he enters either the Scottish or York Rites. Many authorities say the Scottish Rite was begun by Scots emigrés in France; the York Rite is named after York, England where, by legend, the first Masonic body was organized.

In the Scottish Rite a Mason climbs 30 steps, or degrees. The name he takes on at each degree is written on each step in the chart (and listed below the chart). Where there are two names the top is used by northern Masons, the italicized one by southern Masons (only northern names are listed below the chart). Some figures a Mason meets in Rite ceremonies stand on the steps (from bottom): King Solomon, King Cyrus, acolyte, George Washington, Sultan. Each degree teaches a moral. To earn a degree a candidate learns the moral and participates in a ceremony dramatizing it. A 32 ° is the highest degree a Mason can earn. The 33 ° is awarded by the Supreme Council, ruling body of the Rite.

A Mason in the York Rite advances 10 degrees, known by name and not by degree number. On the chart are figures he meets at each degree or the degree symbol. Figures are: temple workman, Past Master (Virtual), Israel tribesman, High Priest of Jews, King Hiram of Tyre, Knight of Malta, Knight Templar, equal in prestige to 33 ° in Scottish Rite.

Under the Arch are organizations allied to Freemasonry. Master Masons are eligible for Grotto and Tall Cedars of Lebanon. Girls with a Mason in the family can join Job's Daughters or Rainbow Girls; women, the Eastern Star; boys, DeMolay. Only 32 ° Masons or Knights Templar can join the Shrine. A Shriner's wife can be a Daughter of the Nile.

Most important of the many Masonic symbols are the open Bible with square and compass on it (left); Solomon's temple (below Bible); and the 'G' with the all–seeing eye inside (upper right). In the United States the 'G' stands for God."
(Matawan Lodge No. 192, 2008)

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TAGS

authoritative historyfreemason • freemason symbols • freemasonry • mason • masonic symbols • Matawan Lodge • monotheismmorality • rite • ritualSolomonstepssymbolism

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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