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Which clippings match 'Raster Image' keyword pg.1 of 1
28 NOVEMBER 2014

Stuart Brown: the evolution of video game graphics

[1] Pixel Pioneers: A Brief History of Graphics, Part One;
[2] Sprite Supreme: A Brief History of Graphics, Part Two;
[3] Polygon Realm: A Brief History of Graphics, Part Three;
[4] Voodoo Bloom: A Brief History of Graphics, Part Four;
[5] Future Crisis: A Brief History of Graphics, Part Five.



3D games • arcade game • artificial life game • Asteroids (arcade space) • Battlezone (video game) • Borderlands (video game) • casual gaming • cell shading • chromatic aberration • cinematic effects • cinematic platformer • colour graphics • console game • Defender (video game) • Delta Force (video game) • Doom (video game) • Far Cry (video game) • first-person shooter • flat shading • flat shading polygons • FPS (games) • Galaxion (arcade space) • game mechanic • Gears of War • god game • Gouraud shading • GPU • Grand Theft Auto • graphics hardware • Guitar HeroHalf-Life (video game)history of video gamesindie gamesinteractive mediaisometric projection • Jet Set Radio • lens flare • Limbo (game) • Minecraft • motion blur • Myst (video game) • Night Trap (video game) • open worldPac-Man • pixels • platform game • playfield • polygon art • Prince of Persia (video game) • puzzle platformerQuakeraster image • ray casting • Ridge Racer (video game) • role-playing game (RPG)rotoscope animationRPG • Shadow of the Colossus • Space Invaders • sprite • sprite scaling • sprite sheet • Star Cruiser (video game) • Star Fox (video game) • Stuart Brown • Super Meat Boy • texture mapping • Tomb Raider (video game) • TronUnreal Engine 3vector graphics • video game graphics • video gamesvisual fidelityvisual trick • volumetric pixels • Voodoo (graphics card) • voxel • WiiWolfenstein 3D


Simon Perkins
03 JANUARY 2014

Interface functions: conceptually similar operationally different

"I am going to argue that 'media independence' does not just happen by itself. For a technique to work with various data types, programmers have to implement a different method for each data type. Thus, media–independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types. Let us look at some examples.

Consider the omnipresent cut and paste. The algorithm to select a word in a text document is different from the algorithm to select a curve in a vector drawing, or the algorithm to select a part of a continuous tone (i.e. raster) image. In other words, 'cut and paste' is a general concept that is implemented differently in different media software depending on which data type this software is designed to handle. (In Larry Tesler's original implementation of the universal commands concept done at PARC in 1974–5, it only worked for text editing.) Although cut, copy, paste, and a number of similar 'universal commands' are available in all contemporary GUI applications for desktop computers (but not necessarily in mobile phone apps), what they actually do and how they do it is different from application to application.

Search operates in the same way. The algorithm to search for a particular phrase in a text document is different than the algorithm that searches for a particular face in a photo or a video clip. (I am talking here about 'content–based search,' i.e. the type of search which looks for information inside actual images, as opposed to only searching image titles and other metadata the way image search engines such as Google Image Search were doing it in the 2000s.) However, despite these differences the general concept of search is the same: locating any elements of a single media object–or any media objects in a larger set–to match particular user–defined criteria. Thus we can ask the web browser to locate all instances of a particular word in a current web page; we can ask a web search engine to locate all web pages which contain a set of keywords; and we can ask a content–based image search engine to find all images that are similar in composition to an image we provided. ...

Against these historical developments, the innovation of media software clearly stands. They bring a new set of techniques which are implemented to work across all media. Searchability, findability, linkability, multimedia messaging and sharing, editing, view control, zoom and other 'mediaindependent' techniques are viruses that infect everything software touches–and therefore in their importance they can be compared to the basic organizing principles for media and artifacts which were used for thousands of years."

(Lev Manovich, 2013, pp.113–124)

Manovich, L. (2013). "Software Takes Command", Continuum.



1974algorithm • black box model • black box system • black box theory • content-based • content-based search • continuous tone • cut and pastedata typesdesktop computer • findability • general concepts • Google Image Search • GUI applications • high-level designimage identificationimage searchimage search engine • implemented differently • keyword search • Larry Tesler • Lev Manovich • linkability • low-level implementation • media independence • media production • media software • media-independent techniques • media-independent techniques from different implementations • metadata • polymorphism • raster imagesearch algorithmsearch engine • search phrase • search toolsearchabilitytechnology affordances • text document • text editing • text selection • TinEye • universal commands • vector graphicvisual searchweb search engineweb searchingXerox PARC


Simon Perkins

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