Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'Searchability' keyword pg.1 of 1
03 JANUARY 2014

Interface functions: conceptually similar operationally different

"I am going to argue that 'media independence' does not just happen by itself. For a technique to work with various data types, programmers have to implement a different method for each data type. Thus, media–independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types. Let us look at some examples.

Consider the omnipresent cut and paste. The algorithm to select a word in a text document is different from the algorithm to select a curve in a vector drawing, or the algorithm to select a part of a continuous tone (i.e. raster) image. In other words, 'cut and paste' is a general concept that is implemented differently in different media software depending on which data type this software is designed to handle. (In Larry Tesler's original implementation of the universal commands concept done at PARC in 1974–5, it only worked for text editing.) Although cut, copy, paste, and a number of similar 'universal commands' are available in all contemporary GUI applications for desktop computers (but not necessarily in mobile phone apps), what they actually do and how they do it is different from application to application.

Search operates in the same way. The algorithm to search for a particular phrase in a text document is different than the algorithm that searches for a particular face in a photo or a video clip. (I am talking here about 'content–based search,' i.e. the type of search which looks for information inside actual images, as opposed to only searching image titles and other metadata the way image search engines such as Google Image Search were doing it in the 2000s.) However, despite these differences the general concept of search is the same: locating any elements of a single media object–or any media objects in a larger set–to match particular user–defined criteria. Thus we can ask the web browser to locate all instances of a particular word in a current web page; we can ask a web search engine to locate all web pages which contain a set of keywords; and we can ask a content–based image search engine to find all images that are similar in composition to an image we provided. ...

Against these historical developments, the innovation of media software clearly stands. They bring a new set of techniques which are implemented to work across all media. Searchability, findability, linkability, multimedia messaging and sharing, editing, view control, zoom and other 'mediaindependent' techniques are viruses that infect everything software touches–and therefore in their importance they can be compared to the basic organizing principles for media and artifacts which were used for thousands of years."

(Lev Manovich, 2013, pp.113–124)

Manovich, L. (2013). "Software Takes Command", Continuum.

1

TAGS

1974algorithm • black box model • black box system • black box theory • content-based • content-based search • continuous tone • cut and pastedata typesdesktop computer • findability • general concepts • Google Image Search • GUI applications • high-level designimage identificationimage searchimage search engine • implemented differently • keyword search • Larry Tesler • Lev Manovich • linkability • low-level implementation • media independence • media production • media software • media-independent techniques • media-independent techniques from different implementations • metadata • polymorphism • raster imagesearch algorithmsearch engine • search phrase • search toolsearchabilitytechnology affordances • text document • text editing • text selection • TinEye • universal commands • vector graphicvisual searchweb search engineweb searchingXerox PARC

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
21 DECEMBER 2013

Danah Boyd: The Future of Privacy in Social Media

"Today's youth are sharing a tremendous amount of information through social media. They share to connect, but in connecting, they leave large traces of their interactions for unexpected audiences to view. Those who care about privacy are scratching their heads, trying to make sense of why youth share and what it means for the future of privacy. danah will discuss how youth understand privacy in a networked world. She will describe youths' attitudes, practices, and strategies before discussing the implications for companies and the government."

(Danah Boyd, Microsoft Corporation, recorded 6 March 2012, duration 00:30:41.

1

TAGS

2012 • being connected • cheating privacy • controlDanah Boyd • data persistence • ethnographic researcheveryday cultureFacebookfriendship networks • future of privacy • hanging outidentity constructionidentity performanceMicrosoft CorporationMySpace • network privacy • network public environment • networked publicsnetworked world • networked youth • online context • online interactionsparticipationpowerpower and agencyprivacy • privacy settings • private by default • private spacepublic by default private through effortpublic spacessearchabilitysharingsocial agencysocial groomingsocial identitysocial mediasocial networking sitessocial practicestechnology affordancestraces • understanding privacy • unexpected audiences • unstructured setting • video lecture • why youth share • young people

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 MAY 2010

The Internet of Things: What is a Spime and why is it useful?

"World–renowned Science Fiction writer and futurist Bruce Sterling will outline his ideas for SPIMES, a form of ubiquitous computing that gives smarts and 'searchabiliity' to even the most mundane of physical products. Imagine losing your car keys and being able to search for them with Google Earth. This same paradigm will find you "wrangling" with product–lifecycle– management systems that do for physical objects what the iPod has done for music. These and other radical ideas are delivered in Sterling's latest book`Shaping Things'. This concise book was written to inspire designers to visualize radical scenarios connecting information technology and sustainability in a new ecology of artifacts. Sterling suggests new connections between the virtual world and the physical world that will have you rethinking many of your assumptions about how we relate to products. He will be joined by Scott Klinker, 3–D Designer–in–Residence at Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, MI who leads a graduate design program known for giving form to experimental cultural ideas. Klinker's own design work focuses on digital customization as industry shifts from mass production toward niche production in a networked society. The presentation will include an invitation for Sterlling and Klinker/ Cranbrook to team–up with Google to create a short documentary film that would portray a speculative future of life with SPIMES. Distributed online, this short film would convey the look and feel of SPIME scenarios as a provocation for widespread industry discussion about the new potentials of ubiquitous, ambient, searchable, geolocative products."

(Google Tech Talks, 30 April 2007)

1

TAGS

2007ambientBruce Sterling • Cranbrook • Cranbrook Academy of Art • digital customisation • distributed online • experimental cultural ideas • geolocative products • Google EarthGoogle Inc • industry shifts • information technologyinternet of thingsiPod • management systems • mass productionnetworked societynew connections • new ecology of artefacts • niche production • physical objectsphysical worldproduct-lifecycle • radical scenarios • sci-fi • Scott Klinker • searchability • searchable • Shaping Things • speculative futureSPIMESsustainabilityubiquitousubiquitous computingvirtual world

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
Sign-In

Sign-In to Folksonomy

Can't access your account?

New to Folksonomy?

Sign-Up or learn more.