"Literary theory and narratology have been helpful to understand cybertexts and videogames. Aristotelian Poetics [Laurel, 1993], Russian formalism [Porush and Hivner, ?], and poststructuralism [Landow, 1992] are some of the different perspectives that have been used to study the subject.
Some authors see cybertexts and videogames as a new form of or as an expansion of traditional narrative or drama. The fact is that these computer programs share many elements with stories: characters, chained actions, endings, settings.
However, there is another dimension that has been usually almost ignored when studying this kind of computer software: to analyze them as games.
The problems of using a 'game' perspective are many. Basically, traditional games have always had less academic status than other objects, like narrative. And because of this, game formalist studies are fragmented through different disciplines, and not very well developed.
In this paper we will propose to explore videogames and cybertexts as games. Our intention is not to replace the narratologic approach, but to complement it. We want to better understand what is the relationship with narrative and videogames; their similarities and differences."
(Gonzalo Frasca, 1999)
Frasca, Gonzalo (1999) 'Ludology Meets Narratology. Similitude and Differences between (Video)games and Narrative'. Originally published in Finnish in Parnasso 1999: 3, 365–71.
"The writerly text is a perpetual present, upon which no consequent language (which would inevitably make it past) can be superimposed; the writerly text is ourselves writing, before the infinite play of the world (the world as function) is traversed, intersected, stopped, plasticized by some singular system (Ideology, Genus, Criticism) which reduces the plurality of entrances, the opening of networks, the infinity of languages."
(Roland Barthes, p.5)
1). Roland Barthes (1970). "S/Z" translated by Richard Miller, Blackwell Publishing.
2). A British one penny coin from 1903, which has been defaced by Suffragettes. Crown copyright.
"Dekonstruktion sollte nicht nur gemeint sein, sondern sprachlich inszeniert werden, was im Falle von Glas sogleich in der Gestaltung des Buches sichtbar wird: Zwei Spalten stehen auf jeder Seite einander gegenüber, links die Auseinandersetzung mit Hegel, rechts der Genet-Teil, wobei beide Textkolumnen keine weiteren Kapitelunterteilungen aufweisen, mitten im Satz beginnen und enden.
Es gibt Anekdoten über einen wochenlangen Streit der Konstanzer Universitätsbibliothek mit dem Buchhändler über angeblich fehlende Seiten am Anfang und Ende des Buches. Auch der fortlaufende Text der beiden Säulen wird häufig durch Zitate unterbrochen, die wie Blöcke in sie eingesetzt sind. Kein Wunder also, dass die Theoretiker des Hypertextes dieses Buch neben Finnegans Wake von Joyce als wichtigen Meilenstein ihrer Vorgeschichte feiern. Man kann gewissermaßen zwischen den Textebenen hin- und hernavigieren, ein fester Bezug – etwa horizontaler Natur zwischen der Hegel- und der Genet-Passage oder zwischen Anfang und Ende – lässt sich dennoch nicht ausmachen."
(Michael Wetzel, Zeit Online)
2). Jacques Derrida (1974) "Glas"
"On the way to postmodern, the struggle to reform modern capitalism's dark side, fragmented into a thousand strands. An era approach is rejected - dating the arrival of postmodernism is impossible as is the construction of a linear episodic narrative, moving from the premodern to the modern and then to postmodern. Instead postmodern methods, theories, and worldviews proliferate, as do modern and premodern ones. There are numerous postmodern approaches ranging from naive postmodernism (McPostmodernism) that hails the arrival of postindustrial and complex/adaptive organizations, Baudrillard's and Lyotard's versions of radical breaks from modernity, to others seeking more integration with critical theory. Some claim to have moved beyond postmodern to something called postpostmodern that would include hybrids (postmodern variants with modern and premodern), language 'heteroglossia' (the coexistence of many voices at the same time in tension with each other), and various 'dark side postmoderns' looking at global reterritorialization, postmodern war, postcolonialism and the ills of capitalism"
(David M. Boje, 2007)
1). Postmodernism - by David M. Boje (2007) To appear in Yiannis Gabriel’s Thesaurus, London: Oxford University Press, forthcoming
"Hypertext, an information technology consisting of individual blocks of text, or lexias, and the electronic links that join them, has much in common with recent literary and critical theory. For example, like much recent work by poststructuralists, such as Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, hypertext reconceives conventional, long-held assumptions about authors and readers and the texts they write and read. Electronic linking, which provides one of the defining features of hypertext, also embodies Julia Kristeva's notions of intertextuality, Mikhail Bakhtin's emphasis upon multiivocality, Michel Foucault's conceptions of networks of power, and Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's ideas of rhizomatic, 'nomad thought.' The very idea of hypertextuality seems to have taken form at approximately the same time that poststructuralism developed, but their points of convergence have a closer relation than that of mere contingency, for both grow out of dissatisfaction with the related phenomena of the printed book and hierarchical thought. For this reason even thinkers like Helene Cixous, who seem resolutely opposed to technology, can call for ideas, such as *l'ecriture feminine*, that appear to find their instantiation in this new information technology." (p.1)
(George P. Landow)