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Which clippings match 'Improvised Method' keyword pg.1 of 1
06 APRIL 2014

Limitations of the Decision Cycle Model of Interactive Interfaces

"One central idea missing from the decision cycle model is the notion that goals are often not fully formed in an agent's mind. As anyone who has ever tried to write an essay knows, we do not always act by moving through a decision sequence where we have a clear idea of our goal. Often we explore the world in order to discover our goals. We use the possibilities and resources of our environment to help shape our thoughts and goals, to see what is possible, and we have no clear idea of what we want to do any more than we always have a clear idea of what we are going to write before we begin the process of writing. This is a different orientation than the classical Cartesian view that we know things internally and just communicate fully intact thoughts in external vehicles. In this more dynamic interactionist view, the action of externally formulating thoughts is integral to internally formulating them too. We do not have a clear and distinct idea in mentalese awaiting expression in English or French. The very action of putting 'thoughts' in words helps to formulate them. If this is generally true about many of our actions it means that the goal of an interactive interface is not merely to allow users to do what they want to do, it must also allow them to discover what they want to do. ...

The overhaul I propose to the decision cycle model begins by noting that the way we cope with badly formulated goals and plans is by relying on two facts: we tend to operate in the same workplace over time, and we are usually clever enough to figure out on-line what we must do next. If one observes most creative activity it is apparent that there are both planful and improvisational elements to it. Creative activity is improvisational because agents are opportunistic -- they pursue ideas and possibilities as they emerge regardless of whether those ideas or possibilities have been anticipated. Creative activity is planful because the skilled agent tries to prepare the environment so that he or she has the greatest chance of stumbling on excellent ideas and possibilities. Thus, although an agent may not know, in advance, what he will create, he knows that by doing certain actions, or by arranging the environment in a certain way, or by laying out certain tools, he is doing the best he can to put himself in a position to recognize unimagined possibilities. This setting up the environment to facilitate on-line choice and improvisation I call preparation. It is a key component of skilled activity. There are others. To accommodate them in a decision model requires adding new forms of action, and new forms of interactivity throughout the decision cycle."

(David Kirsh, 1997)

TAGS

1997active learning • agent-environment-agent loop • approaches to ambiguitycognitive sciencecomputational complexity • David Kirsh • decision cycle model of interaction • discovery through designDonald Norman • dynamic interactionist view • ecological approach to cognition • educational constructivism • Edwin Hutchins • environment maintenance • environment preparation • event cognition • explanatory concept of engagement • exploratory actions • human computer interactionimprovised method • interactive interfaces • interactive learning environments • James Gibson • Jim Hollan • John Bransford • learning environment design • mental processes • mentalese • naming process • perception is interactive • personal exploration of phenomena • reshaping the cognitive congeniality of the environment • Robert Shaw • sensory feedback • theory of interactivity • visibility and recognition

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 NOVEMBER 2013

Thelonious Monk: Straight, No Chaser (1988)

"Expanding on footage of Monk's 1967 tour shot by Christian Blackwood, Charlotte Zwering (Gimme Shelter) has created the definitive filmic portrait of the master bop pianist–composer. This captivating DVD digs deeper into the life of the famously eccentric pianist–composer ...

Straight, No Chaser fleshes out Monk's character considerably – from his harmonic theories to his use of quarter – tones (produced by hitting two adjacent piano keys simultaneously and occasionally even striking the boards with his entire forearm or his foot) to his mysterious relationship with his patron, baroness Nica de Koenigswarter."

(Vlatko, TopDocumentaryFilms.com)

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TAGS

16mm19671988archive footageavailable light • Barry Harris • bebop • Ben Riley • black and white • Bob Jones • Bruce Ricker • Charlie Rouse • Charlotte Zwerin • Charlotte Zwering • Christian Blackwood • cinema of the streetClint Eastwood • Dick Hyman • direct cinemadissonancedocumentarydocumentary filmeccentricfilm lighting • filmic portrait • Frank Paccione • harmonic • Harry Colomby • improvised methodinfluential creators • jazz great • jazz masterjazz performancejazz pianist • Jimmy Cleveland • John Coltrane • Johnny Griffin • Juilliard School • Larry Gales • live performancelow light • Malpaso Productions • music documentary • music tour • musical genius • Nellie Monk • Nica De Koenigswarter • offbeat • Phil Woods • pianist-composer • pianoportrait • posthumous interview • Ray Copeland • recording sessionrecording studiorehearsal • Samuel Wright • sixties coolsocial realism • Straight No Chaser (1988) • Teo Macero • Thelonious Monk • Tommy Flanagan • Warner Bros

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 OCTOBER 2013

Jefferson Airplane Wakes Up New York; Jean-Luc Godard Captures It

"He took over from the specialists and operated the camera from the window of Leacock–Pennebaker's office on West Forty–fifth street, shooting the band on the roof of the Schuyler Hotel across the street. (Pennebaker recalled him to be an amateurish cameraman who could not avoid the beginner's pitfall of frequent zooming in and out.) The performance took place without a permit, at standard rock volume: as singer Grace Slick later wrote, 'We did it, deciding that the cost of getting out of jail would be less than hiring a publicist"

(via Open Culture, 24 February 2012)

Fig.1 Jean–Luc Godard filmed the band on a rooftop in Midtown Manhattan (December 7, 1968).

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TAGS

1960s1968 • alternative zeitgeist • amateurish • amateurish cameraman • anti-mastery • band • cinematic zest • Donn A. Pennebaker • Film Socialisme (2010) • focus and zoom • footageFrench New Wave • Grace Slick • improvisationimprovised methodJean-Luc Godard • Jefferson Airplane • Leacock-Pennebaker • live performanceManhattan • Midtown Manhattan • New YorkOpen Culture (resource) • Paul Kantner • Richard Leacock • Schuyler Hotel • spectacle • The House at Pooneil Corners • West Forty-fifth street • zooming in and out

CONTRIBUTOR

David Reid
03 JANUARY 2004

Ad-Hoc Design: Frank Gehry's Familian Residence

"Adhering to the spirit of ad–hocism... Frank Gehry's own [Familian Residence] house in Los Angeles is rather a collision of parts, built to stay but with a deliberately unfinished, ordinary builderlike sensibility of parts. An existing and very pedestrian two–story gambrel–roofed clapboard residence had much of its interior removed and walls stripped back to their original two–by– four stud frame, beams, and rafters. It was then expanded by wrapping the old house with a metal slipcover creating a new set of spaces around its perimeter. The antirefinement type enclosure is built of the most mundane materials, corrugated aluminum metal siding, plywood, glass and chain–link fencing, and deliberately has randomly slanted lines and angled protrusions. Although the house retains a certain minimalist sense, the effort here is cluttered expressionistic and the sensibility is freely intended as artistically intuitive, of accident not resolved. The palette is anti–high–tech in preference for a visual presence that is off–the–shelf and ordinary 'cheap tech.' Gehry considers buildings as sculpture with the freedom from restraint that this might imply, hence it is not surprising that his work has an affinity to the collages of Robert Rauschenberg, especially in the artist's ripped cardboard assemblage period of the 1970s. (Gehry himself designed a line of corrugated cardboard furniture.)"With the original house almost intact formwise, Gehry, in effect, lifted back the skin to reveal the building as layers, with new forms breaking out and tilting away from the original, to create a forerunner of the Deconstructionist spirit of the eighties. It is almost an idea of 'wrapping' à la Christo, but where Christo seeks through a veil to transform the original to a new sense of being and meaning, Gehry rather produces a discontinuous juxtaposition where one system collides with another resulting in, to quote Bernard Tschumi, a 'super position or disjunctive disassociation.' Where Johansen assembles technological–like elements freely seeding dialogue through the combination, Gehry, through collaging, also basically (but with a different aesthetic) derives an approach to design from the methodology and respect for construction and its architectonic potential as a form maker and space generator."
(Paul Heyer, p.228–230)

Paul Heyer (1993). 'American Architecture: Ideas and Ideologies in the Late Twentieth Century'. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. ISBN 0–442–01328–0. LC 92–18415. NA2750.H48 1993. discussion p228–230. exterior photo, p229.

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TAGS

1978accidentad-hoc designarchitectonicBernard Tschumi • Christo • collage • collide • collisionconstructiondialogue • discontinuous • disjunctive disassociation • Familian Residence • Frank Gehryhaphazard • Heyer • houseimprovised methodjerry-built • Johansen • juxtapositionlayerminimalism • off-the-shelf • randomRobert Rauschenbergspace
03 JANUARY 2004

Rauschenberg: Design by Improvisation

"Much critical commentary on Rauschenberg has focused on the so–called combine paintings of the late 1950s and early 1960s. These were the works––most notably, the horizontally disposed painting Monogram, sporting a stuffed Angora goat, and the vertically disposed painting Bed, incorporating a real quilt and pillow––that briefly earned Rauschenberg a reputation as something of an enfant terrible and as one of the leading exponents of a new post–Duchampian avant–garde. He was singled out in this way, along with Cage and Marcel Duchamp and the unlikely Jean Tinguely, in a widely read book by Calvin Tomkins published in 1968 under the title Ahead of the Game: Four Versions of the Avant–Garde. (6) Rauschenberg's more materially encumbered combine paintings came to be seen as effecting a radical restructuring of painting, with the work no longer functioning as formalized entity set in the viewer's line of sight to evoke a fictional pictorial space but rather as something much more literal and insistently materialized, a flat support to which objects, images, and paint were attached."
(Alex Potts)

Alex Potts, Reviewed work(s): Random Order: Robert Rauschenberg and the Neo–Avant–Garde by Branden Joseph, The Art Bulletin, Vol. 87, No. 1 (Mar., 2005), pp. 167–170 (review consists of 4 pages), Published by: College Art Association.

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TAGS

1959ad-hoc • aleatoricism • angora goat • avant-gardecanvas • combine paintings • foundfound objectgoatimprovised methodjunk art • Monogram • objet trouvepaintingreadymadeRobert Rauschenberg • tyre
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