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Which clippings match 'Scientific Medicine' keyword pg.1 of 1
06 OCTOBER 2013

Modern medicine evokes a Cartesian mind-body dualism

"If we look at the history of medicine, we can see that it became what it is today because of a sweeping social transformation that modernized Europe centuries ago. Urbanization and commerce, along with Protestantism and the Catholic Counter–Reformation, encouraged new ways of conceiving and interacting with nature. It was within this context that 'scientific medicine' was invented and elaborated. The particular scientific model that became predominant in Europe in the seventeenth century accepted the mind–body dualism of René Descartes, for whom the human body is a self–contained, entirely material machine. His contemporary, Baruch Spinoza, on the other hand, elaborated a more relational view, stemming from a Jewish tradition that regards the body as essential to a complex and ultimately spiritual being, and all beings as mutually dependent.

Spinoza's perspective is no less compatible with scientific medicine than the Cartesian view. For science has two complementary ways of explaining: by taking apart–as atomic physics mainly does–and by bringing into relation–as Einstein's relativity theory does. Spinoza was quite aware of the power of the first approach, as elaborated by Descartes and advanced by technologies such as the newly invented microscope. Spinoza acknowledges that the human body is composed of parts, and those parts of smaller parts still. But he recognizes also that bodies are encompassed by, and can be adequately understood only in relation to, unities larger than themselves, until we reach the widest system of all, which is 'the whole of nature.' Spinoza was an early exponent of what is known today as 'systems theory.'

Medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries could have taken a more integrative path, in keeping with Spinoza's insight that we are guardians not only of our bodies, taken individually, but of the entire domain of nature with which they are continuous. Instead–for reasons that this essay will explore – mainstream medicine adopted the Cartesian machine model."

(Raymond Barglow, Tikkun Magazine, March 2002)



16th century17th centuryAlbert Einstein • atomic physics • atomisticBaruch Spinozabodybringing into relation • Cartesian machine model • Cartesian view • Catholiccomplexitycomposed of partscontingencydualismhealth carehistory of medicinehuman bodyintegrative practices • Jewish tradition • Judaism • mainstream medicine • man and nature • material machine • medicinemicroscopemind-body dualismnatureProtestantismrelational aestheticsrelational viewRene Descartessciencescientific medicine • scientific model • self-contained • social transformation • spiritual being • systems theorytaking apart • theory of relativity • urbansation


Simon Perkins
19 FEBRUARY 2004

La Specola: Anatomies In Wax

"The wax collection, unique in the quantity and beauty of its pieces, was created in order to teach anatomy without having to directly observe a cadaver. [...]The over 1400 models, contained in 562 cases, were made between the end of the 18th and first half of the 19th century by the artisans Clemente Susini, Polychrome plaster cast of Clemente Susini, the most famous Florentine wax modeller Francesco Calenzuoli, Luigi Calamai and Egisto Tortori. Guided by Fontana himself these talented modellers worked under the anatomists Tommaso Bonicoli, Filippo Uccelli and the great Paolo Mascagni who dissected cadavers obtained from the Santa Maria Nuova hospital and exposed the part to be modelled. Then the part was reproduced in clay from which a plaster cast was made. Into this the wax – really a mixture of waxes, resins and dyes of which the exact composition is unknown – was poured. Finally, the model was assembled and refined."

(Saulo Bambi)



anatomyautopsybody • Bonicoli • cadaver • Calamai • Calenzuoli • clay • diedissectionexamination • Firenze • Florence • Fontana • history of medicineItaly • La Specola • Mascagni • resin • reverse-engineerscientific medicinesurgical • Susini • taking apart • Tortori • Uccelli • waxwax models

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