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06 OCTOBER 2013

Modern medicine evokes a Cartesian mind-body dualism

"If we look at the history of medicine, we can see that it became what it is today because of a sweeping social transformation that modernized Europe centuries ago. Urbanization and commerce, along with Protestantism and the Catholic Counter–Reformation, encouraged new ways of conceiving and interacting with nature. It was within this context that 'scientific medicine' was invented and elaborated. The particular scientific model that became predominant in Europe in the seventeenth century accepted the mind–body dualism of René Descartes, for whom the human body is a self–contained, entirely material machine. His contemporary, Baruch Spinoza, on the other hand, elaborated a more relational view, stemming from a Jewish tradition that regards the body as essential to a complex and ultimately spiritual being, and all beings as mutually dependent.

Spinoza's perspective is no less compatible with scientific medicine than the Cartesian view. For science has two complementary ways of explaining: by taking apart–as atomic physics mainly does–and by bringing into relation–as Einstein's relativity theory does. Spinoza was quite aware of the power of the first approach, as elaborated by Descartes and advanced by technologies such as the newly invented microscope. Spinoza acknowledges that the human body is composed of parts, and those parts of smaller parts still. But he recognizes also that bodies are encompassed by, and can be adequately understood only in relation to, unities larger than themselves, until we reach the widest system of all, which is 'the whole of nature.' Spinoza was an early exponent of what is known today as 'systems theory.'

Medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries could have taken a more integrative path, in keeping with Spinoza's insight that we are guardians not only of our bodies, taken individually, but of the entire domain of nature with which they are continuous. Instead–for reasons that this essay will explore – mainstream medicine adopted the Cartesian machine model."

(Raymond Barglow, Tikkun Magazine, March 2002)

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16th century17th centuryAlbert Einstein • atomic physics • atomisticBaruch Spinozabodybringing into relation • Cartesian machine model • Cartesian view • Catholiccomplexitycomposed of partscontingencydualismhealth carehistory of medicinehuman bodyintegrative practices • Jewish tradition • Judaism • mainstream medicine • man and nature • material machine • medicinemicroscopemind-body dualismnatureProtestantismrelational aestheticsrelational viewRene Descartessciencescientific medicine • scientific model • self-contained • social transformation • spiritual being • systems theorytaking apart • theory of relativity • urbansation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 FEBRUARY 2012

Powers of Ten: a dramatic representation of our place in the universe

"Powers of Ten takes us on an adventure in magnitudes. Starting at a picnic by the lakeside in Chicago, this famous film transports us to the outer edges of the universe. Every ten seconds we view the starting point from ten times farther out until our own galaxy is visible only a s a speck of light among many others. Returning to Earth with breathtaking speed, we move inward– into the hand of the sleeping picnicker– with ten times more magnification every ten seconds. Our journey ends inside a proton of a carbon atom within a DNA molecule in a white blood cell."

(Powers of Ten © 1977 Eames Office LLC)

Fig.1 Original video of the "Powers of Ten". 1977, uploaded by EamesOffice on 26 Aug 2010, YouTube.

Fig.2 Interactive presentation of the "Powers of Ten". 2010 Based on the film by Charles and Ray Eames. An Eames Office Website.

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TAGS

19772010animated presentationatomblood • blood cell • bringing into relation • carbon atom • cellcell divisionCharles EameschartChicagocomposed of partscosmosDNA • Eames Office LLC • Earthfilmgalaxygraphic representationIBMin perspectiveinformation aestheticsinteractive information visualisationinteractive presentationjourney • lakeside • magnificationmagnitudesmicroscopic worldminuscule detailmolecule • outer edges • perspective • picnic • Powers of Ten • proton • Ray Eamesrelational viewrepresentationscalesciencespace • speck of light • subdivisionsuniverseviewvisual communicationvisual depictionvisual dramavisual representations of mathematical conceptsvisual scientific representationsvisual spectaclevisualisation • white blood cell • zooming

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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