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Which clippings match 'Fragmentation' keyword pg.1 of 2
11 NOVEMBER 2016

Technology/Transformation: Wonder Woman by Dara Birnbaum

"Explosive bursts of fire open Technology/Transformation, an incendiary deconstruction of the ideology embedded in television form and pop cultural iconography. Appropriating imagery from the 1970s TV series Wonder Woman, Birnbaum isolates and repeats the moment of the 'real' woman's symbolic transformation into super-hero. Entrapped in her magical metamorphosis by Birnbaum's stuttering edits, Wonder Woman spins dizzily like a music-box doll. Through radical manipulation of this female Pop icon, she subverts its meaning within the television text. Arresting the flow of images through fragmentation and repetition, Birnbaum condenses the comic-book narrative — Wonder Woman deflects bullets off her bracelets, 'cuts' her throat in a hall of mirrors — distilling its essence to allow the subtext to emerge. In a further textual deconstruction, she spells out the words to the song Wonder Woman in Discoland on the screen. The lyrics' double entendres ('Get us out from under... Wonder Woman') reveal the sexual source of the superwoman's supposed empowerment: 'Shake thy Wonder Maker.' Writing about the 'stutter-step progression of 'extended moments' of transformation from Wonder Woman,' Birnbaum states, 'The abbreviated narrative — running, spinning, saving a man — allows the underlying theme to surface: psychological transformation versus television product. Real becomes Wonder in order to 'do good' (be moral) in an (a) or (im)moral society.'"

(Electronic Arts Intermix)

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1970s1978 • abbreviated narrative • appropriationbracelet • comic book narrative • critical appropriation • cultural subversion • Dara Birnbaum • deconstruction • discoland • double entendre • Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI) • extended moments • feminist artfeminist critiquefirefragmentation • hall of mirrors • incendiary device • influential video artists • magical metamorphosis • metamorphosis • music-box doll • pop cultural iconography • pop culture artpop icon • psychological transformation • radical manipulationrepeating formrepeating patternrepetitionrunning • saving a man • sexual empowerment • Sony Portapak • spinningstutter-step progressionstuttering editssubversion • super hero • symbolic transformation • Technology Transformation Wonder Woman (1978) • television form • television imagery • television product • television text • textual deconstruction • TV series • underlying theme • video artvideo artistvideo artwork • Wonder Woman (television programme)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
11 AUGUST 2012

Kevin Kelly: screen culture is a world of constant flux

"Screen culture is a world of constant flux, of endless sound bites, quick cuts and half–baked ideas. It is a flow of gossip tidbits, news headlines and floating first impressions. Notions don't stand alone but are massively interlinked to everything else; truth is not delivered by authors and authorities but is assembled by the audience. Screen culture is fast, like a 30–sec. movie trailer, and as liquid and open–ended as a website. ...

On a screen, words move, meld into pictures, change color and perhaps even meaning. Sometimes there are no words at all, only pictures or diagrams or glyphs that may be deciphered into multiple meanings. This is terribly unnerving to any civilization based on text logic."

(Kevin Kelly, 19 June 2000, "Will We Still Turn Pages", Time Magazine)

Fig.1 JasKaitlin "hypermediacy" taken on April 25, 2010 using an Apple iPhone 3GS [http://www.flickr.com/photos/64776338@N07/5996281055/].

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200021st centuryaudienceauthorised voiceauthorityauthorshipbook • classic logic of books • cohesive narratives • constant flux • credibility • cultural change • double screening • dual screening • endlessly tweakable • fast action • first impressions • flowfragmentaryfragmentation • framing narrative • gossiphalf-baked ideashypermediacyinformation in contextinterconnectedness • interlinked • Kevin Kellyliquid • meanings change • multi-tabbing • multiple meanings • narrative framingnon-linearopen-ended • people of the book • people of the screen • quick cutsreflexive modernityscreen culturesensemakingsound bitesynthesise knowledge • text logic • tidbitsTime Magazine • traditional narratives • turning pages • various contexts

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
27 NOVEMBER 2010

Republic.com: individual experience causing social fragmentation?

"MIT technology specialist Nicholas Negroponte prophecies the emergence of 'the Daily Me'––a communications package that is personally designed, with each component fully chosen in advance [4]. Many of us are applauding these developments, which obviously increase individual convenience and entertainment. But in the midst of the applause, we should insist on asking some questions. How will the increasing power of private control affect democracy? How will the Internet, the new forms of television, and the explosion of communications options alter the capacity of citizens to govern themselves? What are the social preconditions for a well–functioning system of democratic deliberation, or for individual freedom itself? ...

A large part of my aim is to explore what makes for a well–functioning system of free expression. Above all, I urge that in a diverse society, such a system requires far more than restraints on government censorship and respect for individual choices. For the last decades, this has been the preoccupation of American law and politics, and indeed the law and politics of many other nations as well, including, for example, Germany, France, England, and Israel. Censorship is indeed a threat to democracy and freedom. But an exclusive focus on government censorship produces serious blind spots. In particular, a well–functioning system of free expression must meet two distinctive requirements.

First, people should be exposed to materials that they would not have chosen in advance. Unplanned, unanticipated encounters are central to democracy itself. Such encounters often involve topics and points of view that people have not sought out and perhaps find quite irritating. They are important partly to ensure against fragmentation and extremism, which are predictable outcomes of any situation in which like–minded people speak only with themselves. I do not suggest that government should force people to see things that they wish to avoid. But I do contend that in a democracy deserving the name, people often come across views and topics that they have not specifically selected.

Second, many or most citizens should have a range of common experiences. Without shared experiences, a heterogeneous society will have a much more difficult time in addressing social problems. People may even find it hard to understand one another. Common experiences, emphatically including the common experiences made possible by the media, provide a form of social glue. A system of communications that radically diminishes the number of such experiences will create a number of problems, not least because of the increase in social fragmentation.

As preconditions for a well–functioning democracy, these requirements hold in any large nation. They are especially important in a heterogeneous nation, one that faces an occasional risk of fragmentation. They have all the more importance as each nation becomes increasingly global and each citizen becomes, to a greater or lesser degree, a 'citizen of the world."

(Cass Sunstein, 2002)

Sunstein, C. (2002). "The Daily Me". Republic.com, Princeton University Press.

Fig.1 San Liu (2004) 'Narcissism' webshots.com.

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1995 • being digital • Cass Sunsteincensorship • citizen of the world • citizenshipcommon experiences • communications technologies • consumer choiceconveniencecultural signalsdemocracy • democratic deliberation • democratic participation • democratic society • digital culturediversityemerging technologiesempathyextremismfilter • Fishwrap • fragmentationfree expressionfreedomfreedom of speechglobalisation • government censorship • heterogeneity • heterogeneous society • individual choiceindividual experienceindividual freedomindividualisminformation in context • international relations • Internetisolationmedia consumptionMITnarcissismnew forms of televisionNicholas Negroponteparticipationpersonalisation • political philosophy • power • Princeton University Press • private control • Republic.com • shared experiencesocial changesocial constructionismsocial fragmentationsocial gluesocial interactionthe Daily Me

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 JULY 2010

Microlearning: learning from microcontent

"We understand microlearning primarily as learning from microcontent – from "small pieces, loosely joined" (Weinberger, 2002).

Microlearning as a term reflects the emerging reality of the everincreasing fragmentation of both information sources and information units used for learning, especially in fast–moving areas which see rapid development and a constantly high degree of change.

While in the past a single authoritative work (or even a single authoritative teacher) may have been all that was necessary to sufficiently acquaint oneself with a given topic of interest, this is increasingly untrue, especially as the necessity to (quickly) learn (a lot) extends into almost everyone's work life.

Books, magazine articles, a multitude of web resources (like online books, tutorials, encyclopedias, forum and weblog postings, emails and comprehensive teaching material collections as produced by MIT's OpenCourseWare project or the Connexions effort hosted at Rice University) form essential ingredients of the source mix of almost any non–institutionalized learning effort – and, increasingly, of many institutionalized efforts as well.

Fragmentation of sources has both positive and negative aspects. From a producer's standpoint, information fragments are much easier to create than larger works. Furthermore, disaggregated content – theoretically – can be re–aggregated to optimally suit an individual learner's preferences (instead of the needs of an idealized common denominator). The other side of the coin is that a significant fraction of the consolidation and organization effort is shifted towards the learner.

It will increasingly be the task of microlearning management systems to assist the learner (or group of learners) to consolidate information gleaned from such disparate sources into a coherent whole. We see personal knowledge mapping as enabled by combined wiki/weblog software as a first step in that direction."

(Christian Langreiter, Andreas Bolka, 2005)

Weinberger, D.: 2002, Small Pieces Loosely Joined. Perseus Books.

[2] Langreiter, C. and A. Bolka (2005). Snips & Spaces: Managing Microlearning. Microlearning Conference. Innsbruck, Austria.

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2005authoritative workauthorshipcoherenceConnexions Consortium • consolidation • contentcontextdigital education • disaggregation • disparate sources • encyclopaediafragmentationinformation • information fragments • information in contextinstructionintegration • knowledge chunks • learnerlearninglifelong learning • magazine articles • microcontentmicrolearningmicrolearning management systemMIT • online books • online tutorialsOpen Educational Resources (OER) • OpenCourseWare project • orderingorganisationpaedagogypedagogypersonal knowledge mapping • re-aggregation • Rice Universitysnippet • sources • teachingteaching materialstraining • web resources • weblogwholewiki

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 JUNE 2010

The Open City: The Closed System and The Brittle City

"The idea of an open city is not my own: credit for it belongs to the great urbanist Jane Jacobs in the course of arguing against the urban vision of Le Corbusier. She tried to understand what results when places become both dense and diverse, as in packed streets or squares, their functions both public and private; out of such conditions comes the unexpected encounter, the chance discovery, the innovation. Her view, reflected in the bon mot of William Empson, was that 'the arts result from over–crowding'. Jacobs sought to define particular strategies for urban development, once a city is freed of the constraints of either equilibrium or integration. These include encouraging quirky, jerry–built adaptations or additions to existing buildings; encouraging uses of public spaces which don't fit neatly together, such as putting an AIDS hospice square in the middle of a shopping street. In her view, big capitalism and powerful developers tend to favour homogeneity: determinate, predictable, and balanced in form. The role of the radical planner therefore is to champion dissonance. In her famous declaration: 'if density and diversity give life, the life they breed is disorderly'. The open city feels like Naples, the closed city feels like Frankfurt."

(Richard Sennett, 2006)

Fig.1 Busy street in Naples, marlenworld.com
Fig.2 Paris, Les Olympiades, 1969–1974, Thierry Bézecourt in 2005
[3] Sennett, R. (2006). The Open City: The Closed System and The Brittle City. Urban Age.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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