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Which clippings match 'Universal Principles' keyword pg.1 of 1
27 MARCH 2015

Is Universal Design a Critical Theory?

"Universal design is a term that was first used in the United States by Ron Mace (1985) although forms of it were quite prevalent in Europe long before. For the purpose of this chapter Universal Design is defined as 'the design of all products and environments to be usable by people of all ages and abilities to the greatest extent possible (Story, 2001, p.10.3). Universal design in recent years has assumed growing importance as a new paradigm that aims at a holistic approach ranging in scale from product design (Balaram, 2001) to architecture (Mace, 1985), and urban design (Steinfield, 2001) on one hand and systems of media (Goldberg, 2001) and information technology (Brewer, 2001) on the other.

Given the popularity, Universal design still remains largely atheoretical i..e. the researchers of Universal design do not explicitly affiliate themselves to any form of theoretical paradigm. One of the reason is perhaps because Universal design is a melting point between cross paradigms. By paradigms I mean basic orientations to theory and research (Newman, 1997, p.62). In this sense Universal design can come under functionalist paradigm (because it caters to utility), pragmatic (because it is instrumental in nature), positivistic (because it strives for universal principles), normative (because it prescribes certain rules) and critical theorist paradigms (because it gives voice to the oppressed).

Conventionally the word universal is synonymous to general and refers to a set of principles that are stable, timeless and value free. In this sense universal design could be interpreted as deriving from a positivist paradigm. However, given its history and perspective, and with the universal design examples I provide, I will demonstrate several instances where the universals do change, are time bound and value laden. In this sense I argue that Universal design follows a critical theory paradigm in its conception and knowledge generation. By conception I mean how universal design came into being as a body of concepts and by knowledge generation I mean how the concepts pervade and are shared by the community of researchers."

(Newton D'Souza, 2004)

D’souza, N.: 2004, Chapter 1: "Is Universal Design a Critical Theory?" Keates, S., Clarkson, J., Langdon, P., Robinson, P. (eds.) Designing a more Inclusive World. Springer - Verlog, pp: 3-10, 5th University of Cambridge, UK.

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2004 • all abilities • atheoretical • basic orientations to theory and research • critical theory • cross paradigms • defined rules • designing for usability • Edward Steinfeld • functional purpose • functional utility • functionalist paradigmholistic approachinclusive design • instrumental in nature • Judy Brewer • Larry Goldberg • Molly Story • Newton DSouza • normativepositivism • positivist paradigm • positivistic • pragmatic considerationsproduct design • Ron Mace • Singanapalli Balaram • theoretical context • theoretical paradigm • universal accessuniversal designuniversal principlesusable

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 AUGUST 2013

Tim Brown: advocating a universal typography

"The web is universal, so we should practice a typography that is equally universal. By focusing on traditional typographic principles, embracing progressive enhancement, and understanding how fonts, CSS, web–enabled devices, and user contexts coexist, we can reevaluate what it means to successfully set type – and inform the decisions we make about typefaces, font sizes, and white space. Let's practice future–friendly, responsive typography."

via Deb Polson [http://livingdata.tumblr.com/post/58980870798/for–my–advanced–web–design–students–the–little]

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2012A List Apartbest practices • Chris Silverman • CSSDe Stijldesign conferencedesign craftdesign formalismErik SpiekermannFog of War • font size • gestalt principles • glyph • grid systems • historical developments • Jeffrey Veen • Jeffrey Zeldman • John Allsopp • Karen McGrane • Kevin Kellymark-up • modular scale • molten leading • page breakpoints • page design • pixel-perfect control • Ray Schwartz • Ready to Inspire (conference) • remediation • responsive typography • Ryan Singer • Theo van Doesburg • Thomas Phinney • Tim Brown • traditional practicestypetype foundrytypefacetypesettingtypographic principlestypographyuniversal principlesuser contextweb designwhitespace

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 JANUARY 2013

A theory about the power of persuasive communication

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animated presentationauthority • concorde • consensusconsistency • gift-exchange • human naturelegitimating criterialevels of meaninglikedlikes • liking • marketing communicationpatterns of activationpersuasionpersuasive communicationpersuasively suggestivepsychological perceptionreciprocity • Robert Cialdini • scarcity • science of persuasion • scientifically proven • social obligation • Steve Martin • trust and reputationuniversal principles

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 DECEMBER 2012

Joseph Campbell's Hero's Journey

"The Hero's Journey is a pattern of narrative identified by the American scholar Joseph Campbell that appears in drama, storytelling, myth, religious ritual, and psychological development. It describes the typical adventure of the archetype known as The Hero, the person who goes out and achieves great deeds on behalf of the group, tribe, or civilization"

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1949archetypal characters • basic pattern • call to adventure • character archetypecharacter oversimplificationcharacter-driven storiescharacterisation • classic myths • cycleelixir • Erich Neumann • Finnegans Wake (1939) • flight • formulaic • fundamental structures • hero • hero myth • hero myth archetypes • hero myths • heros journeyJames Joyce • Joseph Campbell • journey • journey model • journey process • monomyth • mythological hero • narrative model • narrative structure • narrativesplot structuresqueststereotypes • tests • The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) • typical elements • universal principlesuniversalising

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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